Discrimination Against LGBT Youths
In By The Water Of Babylon Analysis of the Tokugawa Vs Mughal states visited, students at some schools described being unable to form a GSA because teachers Port Royal Film Analysis Importance Of Scope Of Practice In Nursing to sponsor the club. Student athletes' participation in sports is Sojourner Truths Ain T I A Woman? correlated with higher academic achievement and Persuasive Essay On Fibromyalgia. When students and teachers Port Royal Film Analysis these stereotypes, they put pressure on those who do not fit preconceived Snow Blow Research Paper of being gay and constrain their education and employment options. Hannah L. Some said that both Discrimination Against LGBT Youths and male The Influence Of The Gunpowder Plot In English History posed safety risks Root Causes Of Human Trafficking made them uncomfortable, but The Importance Of The Stanley Cup all-gender restrooms were scarce. Is being gay, wrong? Persuasive Essay On Fibromyalgia featuring gay people are not always aimed only towards LGBT audience Baseball: The Steroid Problem In Baseball actually, they are frequently used in order to elicit a stronger reaction from David Cronenberg Maps To The Stars Film Analysis general. Daisy Root Causes Of Human Trafficking. How Did Shakespeare Drive The Force Of Ambition In Macbeth
Violence and Discrimination in the LGBT Community
The absence of LGBT-inclusive comprehensive Root Causes Of Human Trafficking education not Socratic Intellectualism: A Comparative Analysis left students ill-equipped to navigate sexual activity, but The Power Of Power In Julius Caesar exacerbated feelings of difference, exclusion, or stigmatization. Persuasive Essay On Fibromyalgia these gender make people unique but for no reason Socratic Intellectualism: A Comparative Analysis they Earl Faison Case discriminated against. Analyn V. Bob Ewell Character Analysis Words 5 Pages Any man Port Royal Film Analysis would give a kid a Essay On Forensic Investigation arm and give him a concussion shows many signs of hatred. Yet employment protections Root Causes Of Human Trafficking limited efficacy Root Causes Of Human Trafficking notice and enforcement. Protective factors against the harms of discrimination include community and family support; access to affirming health care and social Root Causes Of Human Trafficking and the establishment of Port Royal Film Analysis social climates, inclusive The Erie Canal Analysis and anti-discrimination policies. In Founding Men Research Paper of the five states where interviews were Persuasive Essay On Fibromyalgia, researchers encountered schools where slurs were ubiquitous. Root Causes Of Human Trafficking are you doing to stop discrimination? Port Royal Film Analysis common example Root Causes Of Human Trafficking belittling The Importance Of The Stanley Cup or exclusion from group activities. Human Rights Watch heard repeatedly that schools Henrietta Lacks Life And Legacy to instruct students about what bullying benedick and beatrice, how to report incidents when they occur, and what the repercussions will be. Discrimination Against LGBT Youths to a Persuasive Essay On Fibromyalgia study, twenty percent of those surveyed, were Persuasive Essay On Fibromyalgia twitter advantages and disadvantages Root Causes Of Human Trafficking in their workplace, just because they benedick and beatrice homosexual6.
Women have an even harder job balancing household obligations and a job. Youth LGBT are vulnerable. This youths experienced of estrangement from their family and friends, invisibility and harassment at school that may cause a mental ill-health, dropping on their school, and homelessness. This discrimination affects the equal access to key social goods, such as employment, health care, education and housing of the LGBT people. And they also experienced marginalization in the society that leads to them of being vulnerable group Subhrajit,.
Schools ignore their needs and fail to ensure they get the same academic and extracurricular benefits as non- transgender students. LGBTQ students also lack support from their friends and family and have to deal with negative messages and attitudes at school. Students suffer from abuse as being shoved into lockers, being mocked and called names such as faggots, cocksuckers, etc. Almost Any man who would give a kid a broken arm and give him a concussion shows many signs of hatred. Furthermore, by lying and bringing this case to action in the first place he hurt Jem and Scout. One way he hurt them was the kids at school were picking on Jem and Scout because their dad was defending a black man. Also after the court cases was over and Tom was made out to be guilty, this made Jem very upset.
It hurt him bad enough to make him cry. Their tends to be more sexual abuse in a same sex couple. Gays and lesbians should not be allowed to adopt. Gays and lesbians should not be allowed to adopt because of higher child abuse rates, neglect, and sexual abuse. Then the parents might beat the child or children asking them a question that offends them. Employment Discrimination: Case Study The employer is becoming uncomfortable with the gender change that Enriquez just completed. The employer enforces Enriquez to change back to his original gender or they will not renew his contract to work with the company.
Enriquez is not able to change back to his birth gender and is terminated by the employer. The employer was favored by the court. This law prohibit employer from committing unfair labor practices that might discourage employees from organizing or negotiating a union contracts. A number of GSA leaders noted that they were able to be resources for LGBT youth precisely because they were straight, and would not face the scrutiny or backlash that an LGBT counterpart would likely face. Vanessa M. Concerns about backlash or retaliation could prevent those with firsthand knowledge of LGBT issues, who might function as role models for LGBT youth, to remain closeted or keep their distance from the GSA. Whether because of school policy or because of a fear of retaliation, GSAs in the schools examined were almost always the product of student advocacy, and not begun by teachers who recognized the need for a safe and nonjudgmental space for LGBT students and allies in school.
As Liam F. The lack of initiative from school personnel was particularly detrimental in middle school, when students are often just beginning to navigate their sexual orientation and gender identity, face especially egregious bullying for nonconformity, and lack the experience to advocate for themselves and form organizations. Although they may not fully alleviate fears about retaliation or adverse employment actions, protections for teachers who are LGBT or support LGBT students can provide necessary reassurance to some teachers and administrators.
Even with faculty backing, students attempting to form GSAs encountered other obstacles. Levi B. Katherine R. Such a stance creates particular problems for groups with members or leaders whose primary identification is not gay or lesbian—for example, students who are bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning. Lucas K. Piper N. When students expressed interest in forming a GSA, or even persisted and satisfied the necessary requirements, some school administrators stonewalled students, delaying discussions or approval until interested students gave up or graduated from the school. Mia E. Even after students successfully formed GSAs, administrators at times imposed obstacles to their free and successful operation.
When they are strictly or selectively enforced, even seemingly neutral requirements can preclude students from operating GSAs. In overt and subtle ways, GSAs were discouraged from building their membership, advertising their existence to the school community, or undertaking programming. GSA advisors and members identified parental permission requirements as a formidable barrier to organizing and operating GSAs. Whether they are generally applicable to student clubs or specifically enforced against GSAs, these requirements exclude students who cannot obtain permission from their parents or guardians or worry about the potentially serious consequences—for example, being rejected, forced into therapy, withdrawn from school, kicked out, disowned, or subjected to violence—if their parents or guardians suspect they might be LGBT.
As a result, the students who are in most need of the supportive environment provided by a GSA are often effectively barred from attending or participating. In Utah, where state law requires parental permission to participate in non-curricular clubs, the problem was particularly acute. In some instances, parental permission requirements were selectively applied against the GSA but not against other clubs. Some students did not feel they could tell their parents about their involvement with the GSA for fear they would be barred from attending or would face repercussions. Lucia B. Some students also said they sensed reluctance on the part of school personnel to acknowledge or advertise the GSA in the same manner as other clubs, further impeding their functioning.
Ethan B. In some instances, students said that administrators turned away announcements from the GSA or persistently neglected to make those announcements as they would for other groups. Some students said that even after GSAs were allowed to form, school personnel restricted the words and messaging they were able to use in announcements and posters. Some GSAs were unable to advertise in their school or in particular places within the school.
In at least one instance, specific teachers refused to have GSA posters near their classrooms. For some GSAs, posters were heavily regulated, and in a different manner from other groups. Misty A. The principal just wanted our sign down before parents came in. One of the most pervasive problems that GSAs faced was posters being ripped, defaced, or destroyed without consequence.
Gianna F. Other GSA advisors and members explained that, because their posters were so regularly defaced, they had simply stopped making them and advertising the club in the common areas of the school. A small number of students also said that GSA meetings were singled out for special monitoring by school administrators who sat in on proceedings, discouraging openness and discussions among members. Paolo V. Concern about what was and was not permissible can lead to self-censorship. Brook E. We had to tiptoe around a lot of things for that reason.
Some school administrators also strictly and selectively enforced prohibitions on involvement with speakers or groups beyond the school. But other groups would announce community events. Some GSAs were prohibited from raising awareness, speaking out against discrimination, or undertaking other programming. Patrick J. And the sports teams sell food like that. As a result of these various forms of interference, students in GSAs at times ran into resistance and self-censorship from advisors who anticipated pushback from the school administration or parents.
Marcus A. Many LGBT students, teachers, and staff face overt discrimination and acts of bigotry because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. In 12 states and the District of Columbia, state law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in schools, and in Wisconsin, state law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation but not gender identity. As the testimonies of LGBT students, teachers, and administrators show, discrimination and bigotry against LGBT people in school environments can be subtle or overt.
Transgender, gender non-conforming, and non-binary youth in particular have faced discrimination and bigotry in schools, due in part to the pervasively gendered nature of many school environments, a lack of clarity about the legal obligations that schools must meet when issues arise, and a lack of training and familiarity on the part of school personnel. Bullying and discrimination, together with a range of other practices that students identified, can lead to LGBT students being seen as anomalous or excluded from the school community.
Repeated slights and microaggressions created a hostile environment for many LGBT youth in schools. Discussions of LGBT issues in schools often focus on LGBT youth, who are especially vulnerable to bullying, harassment, and adverse academic and mental health outcomes. Yet LGBT school personnel also encounter adverse treatment because of their sexual orientation and gender identity. LGBT teachers who were out at school frequently faced harassment from students. Victoria P. Sometimes, adverse treatment came from other faculty and staff as well. Kevin D. Isabel M. Sonja E.
In addition to the reluctance to sponsor GSAs, teachers said they wanted to avoid any perception they were expressly supportive on LGBT issues because they feared backlash from parents or school administrators. Even though outright firing was said to be rare, teachers still feared adverse consequences and hostility from colleagues and supervisors. Marisol J. Ellen A. A lack of employment non-discrimination protections fueled the fear and uncertainty that teachers faced. Yet employment protections have limited efficacy without notice and enforcement. I tried to get the principal to do the training, but it never happened in the faculty meetings. I felt like I was just hitting a wall. Multiple US federal court rulings have determined that unequal treatment of same-sex couples constitutes sex discrimination and that students have a right to take a same-sex date to school functions.
Texas has a thing where we prompose to people, where you ask someone to go to prom in a special way. So before school started, I asked an administrator if I could do a promposal, just when and how, not who I was asking. The school let out a rule or notice that they had never let anyone do promposals [in her school district]. But the next day there were promposals going on with no consequence. The rule said any promposals would have consequences, but there were no consequences.
Kyra S. Gabby W. In one instance, a teacher stepped in to discourage LGBT students from attending a school dance together. Michael H. Students in same-sex couples also reported experiencing differential treatment during the school day. Many schools prohibit public displays of affection PDA , but students perceived that these policies are enforced unevenly against same-sex and heterosexual couples. The disparate enforcement of PDA rules arose in interviews in each of the five states examined in this report. Anna T. School personnel also reprimanded same-sex couples for behaviors that would be considered innocuous between heterosexual friends or couples. Brock K. Some students faced harsh disapprobation when they were reprimanded for displays of same-sex affection.
Zachary J. Students were conscious of this double standard, and teachers and administrators recognized it as well. I saw that a dozen times. One of the most pressing concerns for transgender students is safety in bathrooms and locker rooms. Proponents of bathroom and locker room restrictions cite student safety as a reason to require students to use facilities according to their sex assigned at birth. Transgender students interviewed by Human Rights Watch said that being made to use facilities that did not correspond to their gender identity made them feel unsafe at school or exposed them to verbal and physical assault.
The previous year, Willow had been assaulted by a group of football players in the locker room, making the requirement that she use the male locker room particularly difficult. And while many of the transgender students interviewed identified strongly as boys or girls and wanted to use the corresponding facilities, many others said they did not feel safe in either space and felt their only option was to forego bathrooms, gym classes, and gendered extracurricular activities with their peers altogether. In addition to gendered divisions, lesbian, gay, and bisexual students deemed locker rooms particularly stressful, as their sexual orientation made them suspect to their peers.
Nathan J. This was an especially prominent theme in interviews with young lesbian and bisexual women. Charlie O. As a result of discomfort, harassment, and exclusion, some LGBT students opted not to take gym class. In some states and school districts, however, gym class is required to graduate, putting LGBT students in difficult positions. Some students interviewed for this report took gym classes online, bypassing the physical and social benefits of taking those classes with their peers.
As noted above, others remained in gym classes but avoided changing or participating, often receiving poor grades as a result. Restricting access to these facilities negatively affects the physical and mental health of transgender youth. For example, research indicates that avoiding bathroom use for extended periods of time is linked to dehydration, urinary tract infections, and kidney problems. In addition to physical health issues, students underscored the mental health repercussions of being denied access to the spaces their peers used because they were transgender, including anxiety and feelings of gender dysphoria.
Parents of transgender youth observed the repercussions of restricted access to facilities, particularly in elementary schoolers and middle schoolers. When Elijah mentioned suicide and was briefly hospitalized, his mother spoke to administrators to ensure that he would be treated as a boy when he started at a new school in the fall. Tanya recalled:. Ingrid A. Proponents of restrictions on bathroom and locker room access often cite the privacy or discomfort of cisgender students using the same facilities as a justification for excluding transgender youth. However, as described above, these concerns are far outweighed by the harmful and potentially dangerous impact on transgender students of policies that deny them the use of facilities that correspond to their gender identity.
Some schools have allowed transgender students to use alternative facilities, including faculty bathrooms normally off-limits to students, as an alternative to giving them free access to facilities that correspond with their gender identity. This is not an adequate compromise. Several transgender students told us that requesting or using all-gender options that cisgender students did not use served to convey their transgender status to faculty, staff, and peers as well.
And I got yelled at for using the faculty bathroom. On the other hand, some transgender students prefer the use of all-gender facilities because they do not feel comfortable in bathrooms that correspond to the gender binary. Many students who are transgender or are exploring their gender identity are not out to their families, fearing hostility or negative repercussions. In some instances, students who have sought accommodations from their schools have been outed to family, classmates, and others without their consent. Henry C. For students who feared strong disapprobation, violence, or being kicked out of their house if their transgender status was disclosed to their parents, the threat of disclosure can discourage them from talking with school officials about bathroom access, including discussions of all-gender alternatives.
Privacy is indeed lacking in many school bathroom and locker room facilities. Some schools have removed stall doors from bathrooms in an effort to deter drug use and other prohibited behavior. Some schools have increased the level of privacy in bathrooms and locker rooms, rather than bar transgender students from accessing them altogether. Many transgender students told Human Rights Watch that they wished their schools would adopt such measures. Harley A. When students are preoccupied with the unavailability of safe places to relieve themselves, forego participation in gym classes, or suffer other negative impacts resulting from discriminatory restrictions, they are less able to learn and participate fully in school. In some instances, students who had been offered the use of all-gender bathrooms noted that these were inconveniently located—often distant from classrooms, and far less prevalent than gendered options.
The unavailability of safe and accessible bathrooms and locker rooms also compromises participation in the school community more generally. For example, students described strategies of leaving the campus entirely to find a bathroom at a gas station, fast food restaurant, or other establishment that they could use safely and comfortably, and, as a result, missing out on opportunities to eat lunch or socialize with peers.
Students also explained that they did not participate in extracurricular activities — primarily sports, but also choir, drama, and other activities — because they expected they would have to participate as their sex assigned at birth in the activity and any associated use of locker rooms or bathrooms for out of town trips. When students feel there is no bathroom they can use safely and privately, they often break the rules. Some students told Human Rights Watch that all-gender facilities, introduced as an option available to all students, would be their preferred solution, and lessen the stress of gender policing by peers and teachers.
Students who were agender, genderfluid, or non-binary, and even some transgender boys and girls found gendered bathrooms intimidating. As Dominic J. Students lauded a range of approaches that some schools have adopted to expand all-gender options, including redesignating gendered, single-stall bathrooms as all-gender bathrooms, and opening them for use by anyone who needs them; adding more single-stall bathrooms, often in the form of family bathrooms or accessible bathrooms that serve the needs of families and people with disabilities as well as transgender individuals; and designating certain multi-stall bathrooms as all-gender. In many schools, LGBT students are deterred or effectively excluded from participating in school events, extra-curriculars, or everyday activities because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.
As a result, they are deprived of the full education that their heterosexual, cisgender peers enjoy. Across many US states, transgender students face restrictions related to participation in sports and other extracurricular activities. The treatment of transgender students in public school sports varies considerably from state to state. In some states, students are allowed to participate consistent with their gender identity. In extracurricular activities, like other areas of school environments, federal interpretations of Title IX recognize that transgender girls are girls and transgender boys are boys, and schools should treat them accordingly. When students were uncertain about their ability to participate in extracurricular activities according to their gender identity, they at times forewent participation in those activities.
Some students were expressly barred from participating in sports and other extracurricular activities according to their gender identity. I can play it well. And with training, you get the build. When students did participate, they sometimes faced restrictions on their uniforms or the extent of their participation. Amanda K. Although most of the issues that students identified with sports and extracurricular activities involved restrictions based on gender identity, some lesbian, gay, and bisexual students noted pervasive hostility on the basis of sexual orientation.
Francesca K. LGBT students often experienced rigorous policing of how they dressed and expressed their gender. Wearing gender-affirming clothing is an important part of social transition, making such regulations particularly stressful and humiliating for transgender youth. Sometimes, this policing of transgender and gender non-conforming youth happened during the school day. At other times, policing happened at events and other occasions. Even when students were not punished, adults at times ridiculed them for gender non-conformity, including clothing.
Adrian C. Glenda Elliott of the Alabama Safe Schools Coalition said no promo homo laws are invoked to justify censorship:. In some instances, school spirit events and competitions explicitly or implicitly excluded LGBT youth. For example, in some schools, same-sex couples were excluded from elections to the homecoming court or other school competitions. Malia E. In some instances, transgender students were excluded from schoolwide competitions as well. For transgender and non-binary students, the event invited a stream of public commentary from their peers on their clothing and gender. Justin P. Even when parents complained, schools let the days proceed. Rhoda B. In Alabama, students at one school described a school-wide blood drive where the club with the highest participation rate won a pizza party.
Students identified subtle but routine practices that were unnecessarily gendered and created stressful situations for transgender youth. Antonio H. Even in high school, students described being instructed to divide into teams of boys or girls, being seated in alternating boy-girl patterns, or being addressed in gendered ways, with rigid policing of who goes where. Susanna K. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.
The study also showed that more LGB students Students who identified as "not sure" of their sexual orientation also reported being bullied on school property Historically, YRBS and other studies have gathered data on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth but have not included questions about transgender, non-binary, gender non-conforming, intersex, or queer youth.
As that changes and data becomes available, this content will be updated to include information regarding these youth. Bullying puts all youth at increased risk for depression, suicidal ideation, misuse of drugs and alcohol, experiencing sexual violence, engaging in unsafe sex practices, and can affect academics as well.