Air Conditioning Case Study

Thursday, September 23, 2021 2:46:06 AM

Air Conditioning Case Study



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When windows are open, the variable air volume VAV box is closed off, unless called by the carbon dioxide sensor. Minimum ventilation is provided mechanically unless windows are open. A no-cooling option showed the hours if no active cooling was provided year-round and windows were closed. These hours were not acceptable by the client, thus cooling was included and studied with reduced capacity. Figure 7 shows the hours inside the different classrooms in a pod without any active cooling worst-case scenario. This school was designed with a central ground-source heat pump system, all within the budget of the project. The building envelope included strategic exterior shading, optimized operable-window area, and contacts in operable windows to shut off the HVAC system when open.

All scenarios were studied, with and without operable windows, to ensure the space would meet the thermal comfort criteria if windows had to remain closed due to acoustical reasons. Her expertise is in building optimization and energy services. She was also a Consulting-Specifying Engineer 40 Under 40 winner in Brown Machine Group. Wet riser system comprises duty fire pumps with standby pump discharging into riser pipe with landing valves at each level except the ground. The pipe system is connect to permanent water supply which fed from the town mains. Wet riser system is a system of rigid piping which can be found in PJ Trade Centre. In PJ Trade Centre, dry riser system cannot be used because the building is too tall and it cannot manage to rely the building codes.

Therefore, wet riser system is a better choice and it provide water towards the floors. Jockey Pump is the first pump to start. The controlling pressure switch is set to start at a pressure of psi and set to stop at a pressure of psi. Pressure Gauge Pressure gauge most common pressure measuring devices to check the pressure by compressed gas or liquid. When identify it has high pressure, it should have potential safety threats. Fire Alarm Control Panel This is fire alarm control panel which receive information from environmental sensors. It is designed to detect changes associated with fire and monitors their operational integrity.

Besides that, it provides transmission of necessary information and automatic control of equipment for preparing the facility for fire. This is valves prevent a reverse flow of water from the installation. It is located outside fire pump room and it will open and allow the water flow into the system. In the meantime, the fire pump will receive a signal from a pressure switch. Contrary, it is normally close for the technician to get maintenance for the valves. Sprinkler Valve and Wet Valve Two of these valves include pressure switches and valve monitors. The mechanism of fire suppression makes CO2 suppression requiring minimal clean up and highly effective.

It is used in unoccupied hazard locations and avoided by personnel when discharged. Cylinder valves can be open automatically by remotely using electric ,or manually by using mechanical valve actuators. CO2 storage In PJ Trade Centre, CO2 suppression system is used in some places that have high risk of fire outbreak such as electrical room and generator room. The agent is expelled out the nozzle when the handle of an extinguisher is compressed.

How it operation? Carbon dioxide extinguishers contain pressurized liquid carbon dioxide which turns to gas when expelled. It can extinguish Class B and Class C fires. However, it has no post fire security and the fire could re-ignite. It deprive the fire of oxygen and interrupt the fire chain by inhibiting the release of combustible vapors. Once the electrical equipment is de-energized, extinguishers for Class A or B fires may be used.

Their purpose is to contain fires and slow the rate at which they spread efficiently for people to escape immediately in the event of fire. They also used to protect load bearing columns and other critical structures through fire-resistance walls, floors and doors to prevent the building collapsing during fires. By making a fire resistant compartment between rooms and floors, passive fire protection greatly slows down the spread of the fire from the room where it originated. This is to reduce the amount of damage to the building. The passive fire protection is different from active fire protection which it does not require any action or motion or to be activated by electronics. There are few example for passive fire protection such as fire door closers, means of escape, fire curtain and fire dampers.

The doors provide life safety by providing people to escape quickly when necessary and it also stop the spread of fire, smoke and toxic gases. This fire door requires a proper installation and maintenance is a critical part of the building fire protection system. Still, the requirements remain a mystery for many architects and specifiers. It can be perform well in high corrosive area. A FRP door consists of fire resistance composite that can be used in the opening rated up to one and half hours. It is also protected by fire curtain. The purpose of emergency exit is to allow people to leave the building in a faster way or shortest time because when a building in fire, it may block all the normal exits.

It is usually placed on the above of the fire exit door where it is clearly visible. The purpose of an emergency evacuation plan is to facilitate and organize employer and employee actions during workplace emergencies. An emergency evacuation plan can be found on the wall nearby the lift of every floor. Based on the plan, it is clearly stated that the location of emergency staircase, fire extinguisher, bomba lift and fire alarms. It is to provide the people to find the emergency ways to leave the building in the fastest way. It is usually placed at points around the PJ Trade Centre to provide information to tell people where should they go during in an event of fire and emergency situation.

It is usually green and white in colour. This combination of colour is to tell people that it is a safe condition. It is usually placed above the entrance of every high risk room. It is used to tell people the safety status of a room before entering to the room. It will provide a notification to people by using different colour light, to tell people when they are in any emergencies. A fire indicator light contains of a green and red light bulb. A green light bulb is light up is to tell the users it is safe to enter the room while a red light bulb is light up is to tell the users that the room is in a dangerous situation. It is used to prevent people to enter into the room when it is in the dangerous situation.

A fire curtains require side guides to provide a cover between the fabric and the structure of the building. The main purpose of fire curtain contains of smoke and it is used for 1 hour fire rated curtains is generally used for smoke curtains. This system is placed at every generator room in PJ Trade Centre. The fire escape staircase is used to allow people to escape to a safety place or outside of the building during emergencies and in an event of fire. It is not allowed to use the elevator when fire is in a building. UBBL By laws- Section - Sprinkler valves must be located on the exterior wall which is safe and enclosed position. It should be accessible by Fire Authority UBBL By laws -Section Voice Communication System - Two voice communications systems-Fire brigade communication system and other public address system should separated approved and electrically supervised.

It is located within staircase enclosure to permit the disconnection of electrical power supply. UBBL By Laws -Section Installation and testing of wet rising system - Topmost floor of every building must provide wet rising systems when exceeding UBBL By laws - section - Door closers for fire doors 1 The automatic door closers of hydraulically spring operated type can fit with all fire in the proper sequence. UBBL By laws - section - Exits to accessible at all time 1 Except as allowed by law at the very least two separate ways out might be given from every story together with such extra exits as might be necessary. UBBL By laws - section - Staircases 1 Except as allowed for in by-law every upper floor shall have means of way out via at least two separate staircases.

UBBL By laws - section - Ventilation of staircase enclosure 1 All staircase restricted in areas should be ventilated at every floor or landing level by either permanent openings or operable windows to the outside having a free area of at least 1 square meter for each floor. UBBL By laws - section - Fire resistance of structural member 1 Fire resistance of not less than minimum period shall required by any structural member or overloading wall required by-laws for any element which it carries. UBBL By laws - section - Fire resistance for walls 1 Other than external wall, enclosing a protected shaft shall, if every side of the wall is independently presented to the test by fire, having imperviousness to fire for at the very least time frame required by this part.

These mechanical transportation systems are classified as escalators, travelators and elevators which are known as lifts. In PJ trade centre, they are using elevators only throughout the whole building. They do not require escalators as this is an office building which consists of 21 floors. Mechanical transportation system is usually used in a building to transport goods or passengers from floor to floor within a building.

Elevators or lifts are used to transport vertically in a building. A set of staircase will be designed to the buildings that consists more than one storey. It is counted into consideration when they are designing the building because it is used to allow occupant or user in the building to travel from floor to floor. In accordance to Malaysia Uniform Building By-Laws UBBL , clause Lift is required for all non-residential buildings which are exceeding 4 storeys and above or below the main entrance.

If the buildings that is not exceeding 4 storeys but there are seniors or disabled access, lifts are required as well. Other than clause , it must fulfill the requirement of Clause in UBBL as it state smoke detector must be provided at the lift lobbies in order to detect if there is any fire occurred. Elevators are powered by electric motors. It is activated by driving traction cables or counterweight systems, for example: hoist.

The hydraulic fluid will be pumped to raise the cylindrical piston. Quality of the elevator is an important factor in the choice of tenants. Elevator performances mostly are depend on speed of door operation, acceleration, car speed, stability of speed and performance with variations of car load. In PJ Trade Centre, there are 21 floors and traction elevators are used throughout the building. They are allowed to transport goods or people by using traction elevators. It can carry high loads compared to other type of elevators.

Hoist mechanism is used in traction elevators. Hence, there are some types of hoist mechanism elevators: I. Hence, the speed of and efficiency of the elevator are very important. Electric traction elevators are used throughout the whole building. In more specific term, it is using geared traction elevators. Electric traction elevators have the ability to carry higher load which due to the height of the building.

It provides efficiency and speedy properties to the occupants. There are control valves, drive motor, controller and counterweight. It is made of fire resistance material. The car is supported on a structural frame to which the lifting cables are attached to a top member. The car is guided by the guide shoes on its side member guide during vertical travel in the shaft. This car is equipped with ventilation, operating control system, safety doors, emergency exit, illumination and floor level indicators. The capacity of this car is kg and maximum passengers occupied are 20 persons. When the lift is broken down, the ventilation and light are still functioning.

It can withstand for two hours in order to wait for technician to arrive. Cables There are lifting ropes or cables in the lift in order to function the lift. There are groups of steel wires that are designed to carry and support the weight of the car and allowed to move from floor to floor. The cables are attached to the crosshead which is known as the top beam of the elevator. The cables are depending on the car speed and the capacity of the car. If there is an emergency happened in the lift, for example, the one of the lifting ropes in the lift has broken, the car will not fall to the lowest floor because there are emergency brakes that will brakes the car immediately. There will be other lifting ropes in the lift as well to support the car, so that there will be no accident happened to the lift and the occupants are safe.

There are about four to eight cables in each lift to support the weight of the car with occupants. The electric motor in geared traction elevators is used to drive gear type reduction unit which allowed turning of hoisting sheave. It can be used for car speed up to 2. There is an electrical controlled brake between reduction unit and motor in order to stop and hold the car at the required floor level. A geared traction machine will gives accurate, smooth ride and high quality to elevator with appropriate drive and control system. Counterweight Counterweight is made by cut steel plates which staked in a frame and attached to the opposite ends of the cables which are fastened to the car.

The car is supported by the counterweight which the weight is almost same amount when it is loaded half full. It is located in the shaft and set into the wall of the shaft by two guide rails. Counterweight helps to reduce the energy cost and power demand. It also provides adequate traction at the sheave for the car of the lift. It is basically the vertical passageway for the car and counterweights of the lift. There are guide rails on the walls of the shaft for counterweight. There are car and counterweight buffer at the bottom of the shaft which can be known as pit as well.

The top of the shaft is designed as structural platform to support the machines of the elevator. The elevator machine room usually required one or two levels and it is located directly top of the shaft. Traction machine and some control system are located in the elevator machine room in order to activate the elevator. Hence, they are designed for vibration-free operation and quiet. There is also an alarm button which connected to control room of the building. It allows the passengers to ask for help when they are trapped in the elevator. In this elevator, there is some information such as the capacity of the lift which is not allowed to exceed the capacity of the lift to prevent breakdown of the lift.

Other than that, there are some controller switches for technician to control and service the elevators. Overload sensor can be found at the door of the lift and it is to prevent the car from exceeding the maximum load. It will trigger the alarm when exceeding the maximum load. It can control the car of the lift when there is an emergency or lift breakdown occurs. Also, when lift breakdown, the passengers are able to contact or ask for help from the control through the help button.

When emergency or lift breakdown occurs, technicians are able to know clearly where the elevator has stopped through the key switch panel. UBBL By laws - Section - Emergency Mode - On failure of mains power all lifts shall return in sequence directly to designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls and park with doors open. The Grid Code and also the Distribution Code stated the responsibilities of parties that involved in managing the electrical supply system. Example of the responsible parties are generators, grid system operators, distribution system operators, single buyer and also the large power of consumer.

Structure of the Power System, responsible parties and applicable codes So, how TNB generate, transmit and distribute the electricity to all the consumer? The four main components that make up the electricity grid are generation plants, transmission lines, distribution substation and consumer use. For example, coal and nuclear power plants have less flexibility to adjust their electricity output which means it consume more time to step up or step down the electricity. Natural-gas fired plants can be ramped up faster and it often used to cope with the high demand.

However, in Malaysia, we heavily use natural gas and coal to generate electricity because our country is rich on both resources. Next, transmission system is essential as it transmit the electricity from the generators to the distribution substation. Transformers are required to convert the low voltage electricity which generate by the power plants to high voltage electricity in order to reduce the loss of electricity during the transmission process over the long distance. Transmission lines are made by aluminium alloy and reinforced with steel and it can be overhead power lines or underground power cables.

Typically, the transmission level voltages are at or above kV and the transmission system and carry up to kV. Besides, the distribution substation is where the transmission lines end and pick up by the distribution network. The distribution network start at the transformers which step-down the voltage of electricity from transmission lines and distribute the electricity to all the consumer from the area of heavy and light industry, commercial and residential. The transformers from the distribution substation step-down the voltage to 33Kv.

After that, the electricity transmits through the sub-transmission lines and reach the TNB room which located at the basement of PJ Trade Centre and step-down the voltage to 11Kv which consider as medium voltage. The table shows the classification based on voltage levels. The diagram shows the location of electrical room at PJ Trade Centre. All the electrical room are located at the same area to reduce the loss of voltage over the distance travel. Moreover, we also will discuss about the process on how the electrical generate from the generator plants distribute throughout the building.

Besides, we will also explain about the design consideration through our observation when we having the site visit there. For example, for safety reason, each electrical room has an alternative emergency exit door and also carbon dioxide fire extinguisher to reduce fire losses especially human life. Substation is an important part in the electrical supply system as it links between generating station, transmission systems, distribution systems and the load points. TNB Substation consists several electrical components such as power transformers, bus bars, switchgear and more. Bus bars is an electrical conductor that carry a large current from the generator plants or distribution substation.

It is a thick strip or tube that made up of copper or aluminium. The main function of TNB Substation is to protect the transmission system, control the exchange of energy, make sure the transient stability, maintain the system frequency within the target limits and provide sufficient line capacity to secure the supply. The third suggestion runs along the same lines as the prior; Turkey to has a free trade zone located in Istanbul, which could prove to be a good and cost-efficient alternative.

To determine the viability of either of these options, all costs per unit need to be accounted for. The case study stresses the emphasis the production manager and distribution manager put on various aspects related to the choice of location. The production manager was of the view that labor costs should be minimized, while the distribution manager underlined the importance of transportation costs, insurance costs, import duties, and free trade zones. In an effort to quantify these concerns, a summary of the associated costs is also compiled.

Using these amounts the production and distribution costs have been calculated for each option. The direct material cost comprises of two components, widgets and gadgets. The first is sourced from Brussels, Belgium while the other is sourced from New Orleans, respectively. The assembled window units weigh lbs with gadgets contributing to 30lbs while gadgets contributing to 70lbs of the final product. However, the cost of gadgets has no associated transport cost or import duty associated with it due to it being sourced in the same locality. The distribution costs are further added to this cost.

These costs include transportation costs, insurance costs, and import duties. Duties are imposed on the combined assembly, transportation and insurance costs. However, no import duties are levied, which is an advantage gained here due to Zaragoza being a free trade zone. However, the cost-effectiveness gained from the cuts on duty is overcompensated by the exorbitant labor costs associated with the location. The last option is a free trade zone located in Istanbul, Turkey. Again, as in Zaragoza, production in this location reaps the benefits of no import duties being levied on the raw material components imported from New Orleans and Brussels. In addition to this, the labor cost is also much cheaper than the other two options. Even along with the respective import duties and insurance and transportation costs, the total resulting costs are much less than as compared to the other two options.

Conclusively, the total costs incurred in Turkey pertaining to assembly and distribution are the lowest of all the three options. You will receive the solution immediately after making payment.

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