Industrial Revolution Child Labour

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Industrial Revolution Child Labour



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Sound Smart: Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution - History

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Many children began first working in the home to help their parents run the family farm. What industries children work in depends on whether they grew up in a rural area or an urban area. Children who were born in urban areas often found themselves working for street vendors, washing cars, helping in construction sites, weaving clothing, and sometimes even working as exotic dancers. Other legal factors that have been implemented to end and reduce child labour includes the global response that came into force in by the declaration of the International Year of the Child. Another issue that often comes into play is the link between what constitutes as child labour within the household due to the cultural acceptance of children helping run the family business.

With children playing an important role in the African economy, child labour still plays an important role for many in the 20th century. From European settlement in , child convicts were occasionally sent to Australia where they were made to work. Child labour was not as excessive in Australia as in Britain. With a low population, agricultural productivity was higher and families did not face starvation as in established industrialised countries. Australia also did not have significant industry until the later part of the 20th century, when child labour laws and compulsory schooling had developed under the influence of Britain. From the s, child labour was restricted by compulsory schooling. Child labour laws in Australia differ from state to state. Generally, children are allowed to work at any age, but restrictions exist for children under 15 years of age.

These restrictions apply to work hours and the type of work that children can perform. In all states, children are obliged to attend school until a minimum leaving age, 15 years of age in all states except Tasmania and Queensland where the leaving age is Child labour has been a consistent struggle for children in Brazil ever since Portuguese colonization in the region began in Free or slave labour was a common occurrence for many youths and was a part of their everyday lives as they grew into adulthood. Due to this lack of documentation, it is hard to determine just how many children were used for what kinds of work before the nineteenth century.

Boys and girls were victims of industrial accidents on a daily basis. In Brazil, the minimum working age has been identified as fourteen due to constitutional amendments that passed in , , and This led to the minimum age being raised once again to Another set of restrictions was passed in that restricted the kinds of work youth could partake in, such as work that was considered hazardous like running construction equipment, or certain kinds of factory work.

It was not until recently in the s that it was discovered that almost nine million children in Brazil were working illegally and not partaking in traditional childhood activities that help to develop important life experiences. Brazilian census data PNAD, indicate that 2. They were joined by 3. Many children are used by drug cartels to sell and carry drugs, guns, and other illegal substances because of their perception of innocence.

This type of work that youth are taking part in is very dangerous due to the physical and psychological implications that come with these jobs. Yet despite the hazards that come with working with drug dealers, there has been an increase in this area of employment throughout the country. Many factors played a role in Britain's long-term economic growth, such as the industrial revolution in the late s and the prominent presence of child labour during the industrial age. Due to poor employment opportunities for many parents, sending their children to work on farms and in factories was a way to help feed and support the family.

Because children often helped produce the goods out of their homes, working in a factory to make those same goods was a simple change for many of these youths. Another factor that influenced child labour was the demographic changes that occurred in the eighteenth century. Due to this substantial shift in available workers, and the development of the industrial revolution, children began to work earlier in life in companies outside of the home. With such a high percentage of children working, the rising of illiteracy, and the lack of a formal education became a widespread issue for many children who worked to provide for their families.

Other factors that lead to the decline of child labour included financial changes in the economy, changes in the development of technology, raised wages, and continuous regulations on factory legislation. In Britain adopted legislation restricting the use of children under 14 in employment. The Children and Young Persons Act , defined the term "child" as anyone of compulsory school age age sixteen. In general no child may be employed under the age of fifteen years, or fourteen years for light work. Significant levels of child labour appear to be found in Cambodia. An Ecuadorean study published in found child labour to be one of the main environmental problems affecting children's health.

It reported that over , children are working in Ecuador, where they are exposed to heavy metals and toxic chemicals and are subject to mental and physical stress and the insecurity caused by being at risk of work-related accidents. Minors performing agricultural work along with their parents help apply pesticides without wearing protective equipment. In , the country of India is home to the largest number of children who are working illegally in various industrial industries. Agriculture in India is the largest sector where many children work at early ages to help support their family. This is often the major cause of the high rate of child labour in India. The British thus became masters of east India Bengal, Bihar, Orissa — a prosperous region with a flourishing agriculture, industry and trade.

Many multinationals often employed children because that they can be recruited for less pay, and have more endurance to utilise in factory environments. The innocence that comes with childhood was utilised to make a profit by many and was encouraged by the need for family income. A variety of Indian social scientists as well as the non-governmental organisations NGOs have done extensive research on the numeric figures of child labour found in India and determined that India contributes to one-third of Asia's child labour and one-fourth of the world's child labour. This act was followed by The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in to which incorporated the basic human rights and needs of children for proper progression and growth in their younger years.

This act prohibited hiring children younger than the age of 14, and from working in hazardous conditions. Due to the increase of regulations and legal restrictions on child labour, there has been a 64 percent decline in child labour from — With 85 percent of the child labour occurring in rural areas , and 15 percent occurring in urban areas , there are still substantial areas of concern in the country of India.

India has legislation since which allows work by children in non-hazardous industry. In , the Punjab and Haryana High Court gave a landmark order that directed that there shall be a total ban on the employment of children up to the age of 14 years, be it hazardous or non-hazardous industries. In post-colonial Ireland, the rate of child exploitation was extremely high as children were used as farm labourers once they were able to walk, these children were never paid for the labour that they carried out on the family farm.

Children were wanted and desired in Ireland for the use of their labour on the family farm. Irish parents felt that it was the children's duty to carry out chores on the family farm []. Though banned in modern Japan, shonenko child labourers were a feature of the Imperial era until its end in During World War II labour recruiting efforts targeted youths from Taiwan Formosa , then a Japanese territory, with promises of educational opportunity.

Though the target of 25, recruits was never reached, over 8, Taiwanese youths aged 12 to 14 relocated to Japan to help manufacture the Mitsubishi J2M Raiden aircraft. Child labour existed in the Netherlands up to and through the Industrial Revolution. Laws governing child labour in factories were first passed in , but child labour on farms continued to be the norm up until the 20th century.

Although formally banned since , child labour was widespread in the Soviet Union , mostly in the form of mandatory, unpaid work by schoolchildren on Saturdays and holidays. The students were used as a cheap, unqualified workforce on kolhoz collective farms as well as in industry and forestry. The practice was formally called "work education". From the s on, the students were also used for unpaid work at schools, where they cleaned and performed repairs. By law, this is only allowed as part of specialised occupational training and with the students' and parents' permission, but those provisions are widely ignored. Out of former Soviet Union republics Uzbekistan continued and expanded the program of child labour on industrial scale to increase profits on the main source of Islam Karimov 's income, cotton harvesting.

In September, when school normally starts, the classes are suspended and children are sent to cotton fields for work, where they are assigned daily quotas of 20 to 60 kg of raw cotton they have to collect. This process is repeated in spring, when collected cotton needs to be hoed and weeded. In it is estimated that 2. As in many other countries, child labour in Switzerland affected among the so-called Kaminfegerkinder "chimney sweep children" and children working p.

There were even Verdingkinder auctions where children were handed over to the farmer asking the least amount of money from the authorities, thus securing cheap labour for his farm and relieving the authority from the financial burden of looking after the children. Swiss municipality guardianship authorities acted so, commonly tolerated by federal authorities, to the s, not all of them of course, but usually communities affected of low taxes in some Swiss cantons [] Swiss historian Marco Leuenberger investigated, that in there were some 35, indentured children, and between and more than , are believed to have been placed with families or homes. In April the collection of targeted at least authenticated , signatures of Swiss citizens has started, and still have to be collected to October Child labour laws in the United States are found at the federal and state levels.

Child labour provisions under FLSA are designed to protect the educational opportunities of youth and prohibit their employment in jobs that are detrimental to their health and safety. FLSA restricts the hours that youth under 16 years of age can work and lists hazardous occupations too dangerous for young workers to perform. Under the FLSA, for non-agricultural jobs, children under 14 may not be employed, children between 14 and 16 may be employed in allowed occupations during limited hours, and children between 16 and 17 may be employed for unlimited hours in non-hazardous occupations. States have varying laws covering youth employment. Each state has minimum requirements such as, earliest age a child may begin working, number of hours a child is allowed to be working during the day, number of hours a child is allowed to be worked during the week.

The United States Department of Labor lists the minimum requirements for agricultural work in each state. Individual states have a wide range of restrictions on labor by minors, often requiring work permits for minors who are still enrolled in high school, limiting the times and hours that minors can work by age and imposing additional safety regulations. Almost every country in the world has laws relating to and aimed at preventing child labour.

International Labour Organization has helped set international law, which most countries have signed on and ratified. According to ILO minimum age convention C of , child labour refers to any work performed by children under the age of 12, non-light work done by children aged 12—14, and hazardous work done by children aged 15— Light work was defined, under this Convention, as any work that does not harm a child's health and development, and that does not interfere with his or her attendance at school.

This convention has been ratified by countries. The United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child in , which was subsequently ratified by countries. Parties recognise the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Under Article 1 of the Convention, a child is defined as " In , ILO helped lead the Worst Forms Convention C , [] which has so far been signed upon and domestically ratified by countries including the United States.

This international law prohibits worst forms of child labour, defined as all forms of slavery and slavery-like practices, such as child trafficking, debt bondage, and forced labour, including forced recruitment of children into armed conflict. The law also prohibits the use of a child for prostitution or the production of pornography, child labour in illicit activities such as drug production and trafficking; and in hazardous work. Amongst the key initiative is the so-called time-bounded programme countries, where child labour is most prevalent and schooling opportunities lacking.

The initiative seeks to achieve amongst other things, universal primary school availability. Targeted child labour campaigns were initiated by the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour IPEC in order to advocate for prevention and elimination of all forms of child labour. The global Music against Child Labour Initiative was launched in in order to involve socially excluded children in structured musical activity and education in efforts to help protect them from child labour. The amendment allows certain children aged 14—18 to work in or outside a business where machinery is used to process wood.

The Amish believe that one effective way to educate children is on the job. Under these rules, children of various ages may work in cultural, artistic, sporting or advertising activities if authorised by the competent authority. Children above the age of 13 may perform light work for a limited number of hours per week in other economic activities as defined at the discretion of each country. The EU Directive clarified that these exceptions do not allow child labour where the children may experience harmful exposure to dangerous substances. For instance, a recent study showed over a third of Dutch twelve-year-old kids had a job, the most common being babysitting. Very often, however, these state laws were not enforced Federal legislation was passed in and again in , but both laws were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Although the number of child workers declined dramatically during the s and s, it was not until the Fair Labor Standards Act in that federal regulation of child labor finally became a reality. Scholars disagree on the best legal course forward to address child labour. Some suggest the need for laws that place a blanket ban on any work by children less than 18 years old. Others suggest the current international laws are enough, and the need for more engaging approach to achieve the ultimate goals.

Some scholars [ who? Child labour, claim these activists, also leads to poor labour standards for adults, depresses the wages of adults in developing countries as well as the developed countries, and dooms the third world economies to low-skill jobs only capable of producing poor quality cheap exports. More children that work in poor countries, the fewer and worse-paid are the jobs for adults in these countries.

In other words, there are moral and economic reasons that justify a blanket ban on labour from children aged 18 years or less, everywhere in the world. Other scholars [ who? According to them, child labour is merely the symptom of a greater disease named poverty. If laws ban all lawful work that enables the poor to survive, informal economy, illicit operations and underground businesses will thrive. These will increase abuse of the children. In poor countries with very high incidence rates of child labour - such as Ethiopia, Chad, Niger and Nepal - schools are not available, and the few schools that exist offer poor quality education or are unaffordable.

The alternatives for children who currently work, claim these studies, are worse: grinding subsistence farming, militia or prostitution. Child labour is not a choice, it is a necessity, the only option for survival. It is currently the least undesirable of a set of very bad choices. These scholars suggest, from their studies of economic and social data, that early 20th-century child labour in Europe and the United States ended in large part as a result of the economic development of the formal regulated economy, technology development and general prosperity. Child labour laws and ILO conventions came later. Edmonds suggests, even in contemporary times, the incidence of child labour in Vietnam has rapidly reduced following economic reforms and GDP growth.

These scholars suggest economic engagement, emphasis on opening quality schools rather than more laws and expanding economically relevant skill development opportunities in the third world. International legal actions, such as trade sanctions increase child labour. Child labour was a particular target of early reformers. William Cooke Tatlor wrote at the time about these reformers who, witnessing children at work in the factories, thought to themselves: 'How much more delightful would have been the gambol of the free limbs on the hillside; the sight of the green mead with its spangles of buttercups and daisies; the song of the bird and the humming bee Today we overlook the fact that death from starvation and exposure was a common fate before the Industrial Revolution, for the pre-capitalist economy was barely able to support the population.

Yes, children were working. Formerly they would have starved. It was only as goods were produced in greater abundance at a lower cost that men could support their families without sending their children to work. It was not the reformer or the politician that ended the grim necessity for child labour; it was capitalism. Malian migrants have long worked on cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast, but in cocoa prices had dropped to a year low and some farmers stopped paying their employees.

These children were often from poor families or the slums and were sold to work in other countries. The cocoa industry was accused of profiting from child slavery and trafficking. In a BBC interview, the ambassador for Ivory Coast to the United Kingdom called these reports of widespread use of slave child labour by , cocoa farmers as absurd and inaccurate. In , a voluntary agreement called the Harkin-Engel Protocol , was accepted by the international cocoa and chocolate industry to eliminate the worst forms of child labour, as defined by ILO's Convention , in West Africa.

In , Bloomberg claimed child labour in copper and cobalt mines that supplied Chinese companies in Congo. The children are creuseurs , that is they dig the ore by hand, carry sacks of ores on their backs, and these are then purchased by these companies. Over 60 of Katanga's 75 processing plants are owned by Chinese companies and 90 percent of the region's minerals go to China. BBC, in , accused Glencore of using child labour in its mining and smelting operations of Africa.

Glencore denied it used child labour, and said it has strict policy of not using child labour. The company claimed it has a strict policy whereby all copper was mined correctly, placed in bags with numbered seals and then sent to the smelter. Glencore mentioned being aware of child miners who were part of a group of artisanal miners who had without authorisation raided the concession awarded to the company since ; Glencore has been pleading with the government to remove the artisanal miners from the concession.

Small-scale artisanal mining of gold is another source of dangerous child labour in poor rural areas in certain parts of the world. It is informal sector of the economy. Human Rights Watch group estimates that about 12 percent of global gold production comes from artisanal mines. In west Africa, in countries such as Mali - the third largest exporter of gold in Africa - between 20, and 40, children work in artisanal mining. Locally known as orpaillage , children as young as 6 years old work with their families. These children and families suffer chronic exposure to toxic chemicals including mercury , and do hazardous work such as digging shafts and working underground, pulling up, carrying and crushing the ore.

The poor work practices harm the long-term health of children, as well as release hundreds of tons of mercury every year into local rivers, ground water and lakes. Gold is important to the economy of Mali and Ghana. For Mali, it is the second largest earner of its export revenue. For many poor families with children, it is the primary and sometimes the only source of income. In early August , Iowa Labour Commissioner David Neil announced that his department had found that Agriprocessors , a kosher meatpacking company in Postville which had recently been raided by Immigration and Customs Enforcement , had employed 57 minors, some as young as 14, in violation of state law prohibiting anyone under 18 from working in a meatpacking plant.

Neil announced that he was turning the case over to the state Attorney General for prosecution, claiming that his department's inquiry had discovered "egregious violations of virtually every aspect of Iowa's child labour laws. Agriprocessors' CEO went to trial on these charges in state court on 4 May After a five-week trial he was found not guilty of all 57 charges of child labour violations by the Black Hawk County District Court jury in Waterloo, Iowa, on 7 June A report claimed some GAP products had been produced by child labourers. GAP acknowledged the problem and announced it is pulling the products from its shelves. However, the report concluded that the system was being abused by unscrupulous subcontractors. GAP's policy, the report claimed, is that if it discovers child labour was used by its supplier in its branded clothes, the contractor must remove the child from the workplace, provide them with access to schooling and a wage, and guarantee the opportunity of work on reaching a legal working age.

In December , campaigners in the UK called on two leading high street retailers to stop selling clothes made with cotton which may have been picked by children. It is also suspected that many of their raw materials originates from Uzbekistan, where children aged 10 are forced to work in the fields. The activists were calling to ban the use of Uzbek cotton and implement a "track and trace" systems to guarantee an ethical responsible source of the material.

Inditex , the owner of Zara, said its code of conduct banned child labour. A Human Rights Watch report claimed children as young as five years old were employed and worked for up to 12 hours a day and six to seven days a week in the silk industry. In , a German news investigative report claimed that non-governmental organisations NGOs had found up to 10, children working in the 1, silk factories in In other locations, thousands of bonded child labourers were present in Social Welfare History Project.

See also the Child Labor Discovery Set. The cartoon comes from a pamphlet that you can see in the Image Portal. Certainly before when the amendment was passed. This article on the Social Welfare History Project website explains that mine owners preferred hiring children because they were viewed as more manageable, […]. Yes, this is excellent for all of these school projects, but more importantly to know that this part of our history existed and was the root of much heartache, sadness, cruelty, and suffering.

We must learn from this, protect our children, and find a way to address poverty and homelessness. These conditions have been corrected via legislature and child labor laws and oversight, but there is still gross neglect of immigrant and underage workers here in the US and around the world it is rampant. Most of what we consume here in America is made by factories abroad that practice slave labor. Comments for this site have been disabled. Please use our contact form for any research questions. Skip to main content The American Era of Child Labor Manuel, the young shrimp-picker, five years old, and a mountain of child-labor oyster shells behind him.

He worked last year. Understands not a word of English. Dunbar, Lopez, Dukate Company. Location: Biloxi, Mississippi. Group of Workers in Clayton, N. U3 A5 Since , there have been several efforts to regulate or eliminate child labor. Interior of a shack occupied by berry pickers. Anne Arundel County. Courtesy of Maryland Child Labor Committee. Log in to Reply. Hello: When was the McCutcheon cartoon published? It is a great cartoon. Great website! Helped me so much with my project!! The flying shuttle increased the width of cotton cloth and speed of production of a single weaver at a loom. In , Lewis Paul one of the community of Huguenot weavers that had been driven out of France in a wave of religious persecution settled in Birmingham and with John Wyatt , of that town, they patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system, for drawing wool to a more even thickness.

Using two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds yarn could be twisted and spun quickly and efficiently. This was later used in the first cotton spinning mill during the Industrial Revolution. This operated until A coat of wire slips were placed around a card which was then wrapped around a cylinder. Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton , although this came about under great suspicion after a fire at Daniel Bourn's factory in Leominster which specifically used Paul and Wyatt's spindles.

Bourn produced a similar patent in the same year. Richard Arkwright later used this as the model for his water frame. The Duke of Bridgewater's canal connected Manchester to the coal fields of Worsley. It was opened in July These were both events that enabled cotton mill construction and the move away from home-based production. In , Thorp Mill, the first water-powered cotton mill in the world was constructed at Royton , Lancashire , England. It was used for carding cotton. The multiple spindle spinning jenny was invented in James Hargreaves is credited as the inventor. This machine increased the thread production capacity of a single worker — initially eightfold and subsequently much further.

Others [18] credit the original invention to Thomas Highs. Industrial unrest forced Hargreaves to leave Blackburn , but more importantly for him, his unpatented idea was exploited by others. He finally patented it in As a result, there were over 20, spinning jennies in use mainly unlicensed by the time of his death. Richard Arkwright first spinning mill, Cromford Mill , Derbyshire , was built in It contained his invention the water frame.

The water frame was developed from the spinning frame that Arkwright had developed with a different John Kay , from Warrington. The original design was again claimed by Thomas Highs: which he purposed he had patented in His initial attempts at driving the frame had used horse power, but a mill needed far more power. Using a waterwheel demanded a location with a ready supply of water, hence the mill at Cromford. This mill is preserved as part of the Derwent Valley Mills Arkwright generated jobs and constructed accommodation for his workers which he moved into the area. This led to a sizeable industrial community. Arkwright protected his investment from industrial rivals and potentially disruptive workers.

This model worked and he expanded his operations to other parts of the country. Matthew Boulton partnership with Scottish engineer James Watt resulted, in , in the commercial production of the more efficient Watt steam engine which used a separate condensor. Samuel Crompton of Bolton combined elements of the spinning jenny and water frame in , creating the spinning mule. This mule produced a stronger thread than the water frame could. Thus in , there were two viable hand-operated spinning systems that could be easily adapted to run by power of water. As with Kay and Hargreaves, Crompton was not able to exploit his invention for his own profit, and died a pauper. In a mill was built in Manchester at Shudehill, at the highest point in the city away from the river.

Shudehill Mill was powered by a 30 ft diameter waterwheel. Two storage ponds were built, and the water from one passed from one to the other turning the wheel. A steam driven pump returned the water to the higher reservoir. The steam engine was of the atmospheric type. In , Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom , [16] and produced a prototype in the following year. His initial venture to exploit this technology failed, although his advances were recognised by others in the industry. Others such as Robert Grimshaw whose factory was destroyed in as part of the growing reaction against the mechanization of the industry and Austin [22] — developed the ideas further.

In the s industrialists, such as John Marshall at Marshall's Mill in Leeds, started to work on ways to apply some of the techniques which had proved so successful in cotton to other materials, such as flax. In , William Radcliffe invented the dressing frame which was patented under the name of Thomas Johnson which enabled power looms to operate continuously. From this point there were no new inventions, but a continuous improvement in technology as the mill-owner strove to reduce cost and improve quality. Developments in the transport infrastructure - the canals and, after , the railways - facilitated the import of raw materials and export of finished cloth.

The use of water power to drive mills was supplemented by steam driven water pumps, and then superseded completely by the steam engines. For example, Samuel Greg joined his uncle's firm of textile merchants, and, on taking over the company in , he sought out a site to establish a mill. It was initially powered by a water wheel , but installed steam engines in William Fairbairn addressed the problem of line-shafting and was responsible for improving the efficiency of the mill. In he replaced the wooden turning shafts that drove the machines at 50rpm, to wrought iron shafting working at rpm, these were a third of the weight of the previous ones and absorbed less power. In , using an patent, Richard Roberts manufactured the first loom with a cast-iron frame, the Roberts Loom.

It is a semiautomatic power loom. Although it is self-acting, it has to be stopped to recharge empty shuttles. It was the mainstay of the Lancashire cotton industry for a century, when the Northrop Loom invented in with an automatic weft replenishment function gained ascendancy. Also in , Richard Roberts patented the first self-acting mule. The Stalybridge mule spinners strike was in , this stimulated research into the problem of applying power to the winding stroke of the mule. Before , the spinner would operate a partially powered mule with a maximum of spindles after, self-acting mules with up to 1, spindles could be built. The savings that could be made with this technology were considerable.

A worker spinning cotton at a hand-powered spinning wheel in the 18th century would take more than 50, hours to spin lb of cotton; by the s, the same quantity could be spun in hours by mule, and with a self-acting mule it could be spun by one worker in just hours. The nature of work changed during industrialisation from a craft production model to a factory-centric model.

It was during the years to that these changes happened. Textile factories organized workers' lives much differently from craft production. Handloom weavers worked at their own pace, with their own tools, and within their own cottages. Factories set hours of work, and the machinery within them shaped the pace of work. Factories brought workers together within one building to work on machinery that they did not own. Factories also increased the division of labour. They narrowed the number and scope of tasks. They included children and women within a common production process. As Manchester mill owner Friedrich Engels decried, the family structure itself was "turned upside down" as women's wages undercut men's, forcing men to "sit at home" and care for children while the wife worked long hours.

The work-discipline was forcefully instilled upon the workforce by the factory owners, and he found that the working conditions were poor, and poverty levels were at an unprecedented high. Engels was appalled, and his research in Derby played a large role in his and Marx's book ' Das Kapital '. At times, the workers rebelled against poor wages. The first major industrial action in Scotland was that of the Calton weavers in Glasgow, who went on strike for higher wages in the summer of In the ensuing disturbances, troops were called in to keep the peace and three of the weavers were killed.

In Manchester in May , 15, protesters gathered on St George's Fields and were fired on by dragoons, with one man dying. A strike followed, but was eventually settled by a small wage increase. Again, troops were called in to keep the peace, and the strike leaders were arrested, but some of the worker demands were met. The early textile factories employed a large share of children , but the share declined over time. In England and Scotland in , two-thirds of the workers in water-powered cotton mills were described as children.

Sir Robert Peel , a mill owner turned reformer, promoted the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act , which was intended to prevent pauper children from working more than 12 hours a day in mills.

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