Sex And Sexuality In The Grimms Fairy Tales
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Transforming Our Understanding of Fairy Tales - Anne Duggan - TEDxWayneStateU
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He asked: "Am I good enough to f--k? He had tied her down to her bed with silk scarves and ran a knife blade across her body. The rapist was brought to trial, but acquitted of the rape charges, to the dismay of prosecutor Carla Bondi Anne Bancroft. Chris sought lethal vigilante revenge against Stuart, especially after he also went after her 15 year-old sister Kathy Mariel Hemingway in her film debut, Margaux' real-life sister in an abandoned office building with his hideous assault fortunately off-screen. In the film's ending, lipsticked Chris used a pump-action shotgun to seek bloody and murderous justice with an obviously tacked-on ending and voice-over which found Chris not guilty of the murder.
Director Nicolas Roeg's impressionistic, hallucinatory, disjointed, non-literal sci-fi film and parable about an alien on Earth seeking water for his drought-stricken planet Anthea. The allegorical movie included scenes of unusual, exploratory and explicit sexual encounters with full frontal nudity of both major stars , cut from the film's initial UK release for US audiences. After the scene of Newton's arrival on Earth, he soon acquired wealth as a tycoon, heading up a technological firm using advanced inventions from his home planet.
When he revisited New Mexico where he had initially landed, he met up with lonely and unloved Mary-Lou, and before long, she had taught him about many human ways, including sex. During one frenzied and loveless encounter, a drunk Newton threatened Mary-Lou with a blank-firing fake pistol, dipped its barrel into a glass of wine, and then licked it, before they both struggled with the weapon as sexual foreplay. She taught him about humanoid sex. When she learned that aliens secreted a semen-like goo, and his true Anthean form pale, androgynous, cat-eyed and hairless was revealed to her, she was startled, frightened and repulsed, and peed down her leg.
After a few decades passed, Newton eventually ended up corrupted and ravaged by alcohol and despairing depression - and unable to return to his doomed home. There were also a lot of unrelated sexual scenes in the film:. Bryce became aware of Newton's amazing technology after Elaine used one of Newton's self-developing cameras to miraculously photograph their love-making on a strip of film. During dinner at a restaurant, she related her unhappy, soul-dead personal life and sexual inadequacies, and how she passionately breathed and lived her work, television and high ratings:. I had six years of analysis and pretended to be sane.
My husband ran off with his boyfriend, and I had an affair with my analyst, who told me I was the worst lay he'd ever had. I can't tell you how many men have told me what a lousy lay I am. I apparently have a masculine temperament. I arouse quickly, consummate prematurely, and can't wait to get my clothes back on and get out of that bedroom. I seem to be inept at everything except my work. I'm good at my work. So I confine myself to that. All I want out of life is a 30 share and a 20 rating. During a weekend tryst in the Hamptons, without hardly pausing, she orgasmed during an intense ranting about programming challenges regarding "The Mao Tse-tung Hour":.
Let the federal government sue us. We'll take them to the Supreme Court. We'll be front page. We'll be front page for months. We'll have more press than Watergate! All I need is six weeks federal litigation and the 'Mao Tse-tung Hour' can start carrying its own time slot. She experienced orgasm. What's really bugging me now is my daytime programming. NBC's got a lock on daytime with their lousy game shows, and I'd like to bust them. I'm thinking of doing a homosexual soap opera. What do you think? Novecento , It. Bernardo Bertolucci's epic-length, sprawling historical drama of Fascist Italy from to the WWII era was his follow-up film, another controversial one, after Last Tango in Paris The lengthy melodrama chronicled the struggles between leftist and rightest groups, exemplified by its two main male characters with divergent social standings.
The two men were both conceived on the same day at the start of the 20th century. It was greeted with both excitement and skepticism at the Cannes Film Festival for its near-pornographic scene of sexual exploration featuring big stars in an explicit sex act. The controversial scenes were edited out for the US release of the truncated film, and later reappeared in the over-5 hour, NC re-release in Alfredo and Olmo visited Neve, where both were viewed completely naked as they got into bed with her, one on each side.
Alfredo asked: "Who goes first? Then, she considered a different approach and asked Alfredo: "Maybe you can do something better? When he jerked away, she went back to pleasuring Alfredo. But then when she was forced to take a drink, she soon felt strange and suffered an epileptic convulsion, aborting their time together. Earlier, the two prepubescent boys examined and compared the length of their penises. Alfredo married Ada Chiostri Polan Dominique Sanda , after taking her virginity in a barn, while Olmo married independent minded Anita Foschi Stefania Sandrelli - who died during childbirth.
There were other violent scenes involving the disturbing and brutal Berlinghieri farm manager Attila Mellanchini Donald Sutherland who was later vengefully punished for his sadism. The final sequence portrayed the Italian socialist peasants overthrowing their Fascist masters - and the major true test of loyalty - would Olmo defend his life-long "padrone" friend? A Real Young Girl , Fr. This film was promptly banned upon its initial release in France in , and was not released to theaters until the year One tagline was:. Breillat would later become famous for the similarly-explicit Romance , Fr. The self-reflective film was not considered pornographic by many, but rather a serious attempt to represent the disruptive awakening and tumultuous sexuality of the psyche of a pubescent young female, who was all too-ready to transgress taboos of society.
The frank film showed various close-ups of her genitalia, her crude and realistic fascination with messy, tactile, and visceral emitted fluids mostly from her body and mysterious smells including vomit, urine, a broken egg yolk, tree sap, blood from a beheaded chicken, her own ear-wax, sperm in a fantasy sequence and candle-wax - often shown in closeup , and also, her rampant sexual fantasies and infatuations. For example, during the female protagonist's first night at home, she flopped backwards onto her bed in her two-piece pajamas; seemingly depressed, she then vomited onto herself; she spoke in voice-over: "I sat up cautiously, liberated by the vomit's warmth, by the sweetish smell it gave off.
Disgust makes me lucid. It was at that very moment that I decided to write my diary because I couldn't sleep. This original, unapologetic and bold coming-of-age film charted the budding sexuality and self-exploration of one teenager in the summer of in France:. They oppress me. All year, I was away at school. I only came home for end-of-term holidays. Summer holidays were the worst. They were endless. When she arrived at her home train station, a sugar-sweet pop tune played about a young female's insecurities: "Suis-je une petite fille" Lyrics: "I'm a little girl.
I don't know, no, I don't know. How big a girl I am. Only you can tell. Please, please tell me, tell me now. Please, please tell me what you like about me". There were a number of incidents involving her sexual awakening. However, in one surreal, graphically-explicit and shocking fantasy dream sequence involving the hired worker Jim, Alice was lying naked spread-eagled on her back on the ground - her hands were tied back with barbed wire.
He dangled a live and wiggling earthworm a symbol of a flaccid, small-sized male genitals over her full-screen genitals, then tried to insert it into her vagina. When unsuccessful, he pulled apart the worm with his fingers into segmented pieces, and sprinkled the remains on top of her pubic hair. She looked up as he stood towering above her, and he snickered at her.
In a second imaginary fantasy sequence with Jim, she walked to the sawmill and came upon Jim urinating with his back to her "He was shaking it". She attracted Jim's attention by removing her panties and urinating in front of him. He walked off, again disinterested. She ran after him to the beach, and crawled in front of him with chicken feathers protruding from her rear , as he opened his pants in front of her. She told him: "Cluck, cluck, I'm a chicken too. They both rolled onto their backs and side-by-side, they masturbated next to and in front of each other. Afterwards, he wiped his sperm onto her blouse "I watched his cock flopping like a dead fish". She was disgusted and as she departed, she yelled out: "Get lost!
In the film's conclusion, it was revealed that Alice's philandering father was involved in an on-going affair. Alice listened as her parents quarreled about their disintegrating marriage, although her father pledged: "I don't think I want to lose you. As some form of ironic punishment for sneaking over to Alice's place in the dark for their "first date," Jim who had just been fired by her father after demanding overtime was shot and killed by a trap that Alice's father had set up to keep wild boar out of his corn field. Alice's mother reacted with hysteria: "My God, we're ruined How are we going to pay for this? There were a few closing or end credits followed by a black screen accompanied by music on the soundtrack. Salon Kitty , It.
Italian erotic cinema director Tinto Brass' controversial yet beautifully filmed arthouse film was another advanced example of the pre-WWII Nazi-exploitation films that had begun to appear at the end of the previous decade. It pushed the envelope, with plentiful male and female nudity, a massive orgy, masturbation, lesbianism, and other transgressive material. Set in the year , it told about a Nazi-sympathetic brothel in Socialist-run Germany run by the title character Madame Kitty Kellermann Ingrid Thulin. Power-questing Nazi officer Helmut Wallenberg Helmut Berger took over the whorehouse and stocked it with a new group of about twenty "good Nationalist girls. The most qualified will be given a second examination, more detailed, more specific.
The test has been tailor-made for you, by our psycho-somatic center. Your duty is to refuse nothing, coitus, anal coitus, masturbation and fellatio. Another line-up of nude males joined the females, and they paired off for gymnastic-like sexual exercises - during a giant orgy. During the procedures, Helmut's eye was attracted to blonde Margherita Teresa Ann Savoy , and he took her as his mistress. His goal was to use Nazi intelligence to bug officers during sex with the members of Kitty's brothel harem, thereby winnowing out the loyal from those not fully committed.
However, Margherita fell instead for one of her steady customers named Hans Bekim Fehmiu , a disillusioned Wehrmacht pilot with a conscience, who planned to defect to the Allies leading to his torturous meathook death for treason. Helmut also found vile and deformed individuals including a midget humpback whom he forced blonde hooker Marika Paola Senatore to make love to in a barred cell, to test her tolerance for perversion and defilement. Wallenberg's frumpy wife Herta Tina Aumont appeared in a small role, when she was forced to participate in a lesbian scene with Margherita. The film's dialogue was in vulgar Latin and required English sub-titles. The plot was inspired by the image in a Renaissance painting of a martyred Saint Sebastian - ordered killed by Emperor Diocletian, who had him stripped naked, tied to a pole and shot through with arrows.
In historical fact, Sebastian was clubbed to death and his body deposited in a Roman sewer in A. The opening sequence was a 4th century Roman orgy in the decadent court of Diocletian. During the festivities, body-painted naked men, with comically-exaggerated giant penises danced around a savagely-painted, white-washed lead dancer Lindsay Kemp. The main story was about Christian palace guard soldier in the Roman Imperial Troops named:. T he defiant guard was sent or exiled to a remote Sardinian outpost camp with eight soldiers - "nowhere to go, no one to fight, nothing to do.
Throughout almost the entire film, the Roman soldiers at the sweltering desert outpost rough-housed, played practical jokes on each other, skinny-dipped, and engaged in various games or contests. They always appeared undressed or wearing only loincloths, and sometimes completely naked with full-frontal male nudity. The film included an explicit and frank depiction of outdoor homosexual love-making between two of the muscular and sculpted soldiers, Anthony Janusz Romanov and Adrian Ken Hicks , having same-sex intercourse in a pool of water. A relaxed indoor bath scene also revealed the genitals of a number of the soldiers, one of whom was shaving his entire naked body with a curved knife.
Sebastiane rejected the final homosexual advances of his desperately-smitten, drunken, and lustful pagan commanding centurion, blonde Severus Barney James , to engage in sodomy:. Sebastiane: "Poor Severus. You think your drunken lust compares to the love of God. You're so drunk, you're impotent. As for it, you Christian whore. Sebastiane, I love you. You are so beautiful. Sebastiane, love me. You impotent fool. You'll never have me and you've never had me. As a result, he was eventually martyred. He was tied naked to an upright stake and penetrated with arrows. Slumber Party "57" aka Teenage Slumber Party. Directed by William Levey, co-scripted by Levey and Frank Farmer, and produced by John Ireland, this R-rated teen sexploitational Cannon Films production came on the heels of the extremely popular American Graffiti and nostalgia for earlier times.
It was not to be confused with the later film The Slumber Party Massacre Its tagline was:. The soft-core comedy-drama told about six bored and horny adolescent girls in Beverly Hills, CA in that decided to have a sleep-over at rich girl Sherry's house since her parents were away in Palm Springs for the weekend. Debbie was particularly upset because the boys' basketball team was away for the weekend.
The six girls were:. First, some of the teens swam in the outdoor pool at Sherry's posh Beverly Hills mansion in the afternoon and teasingly pulled off each other's bikini tops. During the evening, the six teen girls - each with an extended flashback - were challenged to tell about the initial time they lost their virginity, after Debbie suggested: "I have a super neat idea. What about if we all tell about the first time we ever did it? The film's predictable plot twist concluded the film - all five of the other girls in the living room confessed that they had lied and exaggerated, and were still virgins. Debbie suggested that they had to save Sherry "We have to go stop her. We have to go tell her the truth". They rushed upstairs to tell Sherry about their deceptions: "Sherry!
Don't do it! We were just kiddin'! This lurid Hammer Film Productions' horror film, directed by Peter Sykes, was another theatrically-released occult melodrama from the British film studio - their second-to-last film ever made and their last official horror film. It was a respectable but weak work, trying to capitalize on and compete with the more sensational aspects of two previous films:. The film, injected with sex and violence, was very loosely based on a version of Dennis Wheatley's novel.
The film's tagline stated:. It was one of the earliest of actress Nastassja Kinski's film appearances, which brought her continuing notoriety due to her fully-nude appearance in the film at a young age, and further charges of exploitation. The film's disjointed plot told about a terrorized young virginal woman, Catherine Beddows 15 year-old Nastassja Kinski , raised from birth as a nun practicing in a Bavarian convent, in an order called The Children of the Lord.
Her distraught father Henry Beddows Denholm Elliott had signed Catherine over to the care of Father Rayner, who was leading a mysterious group of Satanists who practiced black magic and held various strange rituals. In one scene, a pregnant German woman named Margaret Isabella Telezynska was tied by her wrists to the bedposts and held down with her legs strapped together as she went into labor - and an unseen baby burst out of her belly.
Rayner wanted to release the hell-spawned force into the world through the vessel of Catherine's body via an avatar - the ultimate personification of the god Astaroth. Turning 18 years of age, Catherine would be sacrificed to revive or rebirth the world's new Anti-Christ demon ruler, by baptism in her blood. The American occult novelist Verney, who was asked by a desperate Henry in exchange for secret occult information to look after his daughter Catherine, found himself protecting her.
The film anti-climaxed with the strange sight of the grotesque, blood-stained demonic fetal child trying to enter Catherine's womb, a Satanic orgy conducted on an altar with a masked Rayner raping a drugged Catherine , and her abrupt saving by Verney as the film ended. This surreal, graphic, and tasteless Russ Meyer film was co-written by Reinhold Timme, a pseudonym for film critic Roger Ebert. It had all the ingredients of a typical soft-core nudie-flick, including an inter-racial group of prostitutes, awful dialogue, kitschy music, bawdy humor, lots of nudity, some off-color jokes, a mostly incoherent plot, and colorful characters including hick rednecks, a white supremacist, and an Adolph Hitler caricature. The image accompanying the poster portrayed the right side of the letter U in the film's title in the shape of an erect phallus.
Throughout the film were meaningless time-frame titles, and there were even references to other classic films, such as Citizen Kane 's 'Rosebud' - the small rose tattoo on the main character's lower left abdomen. The main character in the backwoods sex comedy was a buxom, Shakespeare-quoting wood-nymph who found pleasure next to tree trunks , credited as a one-person nude "Greek Chorus" Francesca 'Kitten' Natividad. She spoke about her role, as she nakedly straddled a large tree branch, extended her right hand, and various parts of her body were seen in huge closeup - her pubic area, and each nipple:.
I am your Greek chorus, the cacophony of carnality, the embodiment of the body and your sherpa of suspense. Now come. Come , take my hand and, if you dare, she parted her thighs , sheathe your sword to its hilt. Are you up to it? At various times in the film, she would appear to comment upon and identify the characters and action. In addition to the plentiful breast nudity including lots of wild sex in the woods and many prosthetic penises a foot in length! The sketchy plot was a bizarre murder mystery, in which everyone might be a suspect. The fetishist was a recluse living in a Bavarian castle in N.
California on Rt. On September 19th at am, he was enjoying numerous sexual experiences with an inter-racial group of prostitutes in his torture-dungeon. Sexual services during an orgy were being offered by representatives of various ethnic groups:. Afterwards, while taking a bath, Adolph "the colonial oppressor" was devoured and murdered in his bathtub by a black-gloved intruder-assassin, who dumped carnivorous Harry the Nimrod a piranha into the bath water. Two other characters, female lovers, were introduced in the great outdoors up against a tree , engaged in lesbian, inter-racial sex:. A third individual, a new resident in the town Miranda, CA , was introduced:. Homer Johnson Monte Bane , the local, sleazy Redwood County Sheriff who witnessed the murder of Margo's rapist, was rewarded by Margo with multiple bouts of sex in and around his woodsy cabin for falsifying his report after the killing.
Often during sex, she spoke with a Mae West accent. Homer was also bribed by Gwendolyn into not writing up a warning ticket on her after he pulled her over in town, in exchange for providing him with oral sex "I give good head" in the back seat of his patrol car. After Margo was hired to be a waitress at Alice's Cafe while shacking up with the Sheriff , business increased due to her shapely body and friendly personality. Eventually, Paul became overly interested in her: "I'd like to strap you on sometime" and followed her one day when she went skinny-dipping. He soon was engaged in rampant sex with her. In a separate vignette, Pocohontas Foxy Lae , a Native-American wearing a feather-bonnet, was briefly electrocuted while having sex with Sheriff Homer.
She had to flee when Margo arrived for sex and found him in the shower - noting his reddish erection - with a non-PC comment: "It's all red. It looks like you've been f--kin' an Indian. In a cartoonish comedic scene in Alice's Cafe II during its grand opening, Margo entertained the customers with a strip-tease. I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente. La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominavano ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale.
I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. L'innovazione fu poi adottata anche nei Paesi neolatini come l'Italia , anche se non divenne comune prima del XII secolo. Si ritiene che l'inserimento di spazi tra le parole abbia favorito il passaggio dalla lettura semi-vocalizzata a quella silenziosa. Prima dell'invenzione e della diffusione del torchio tipografico , quasi tutti i libri venivano copiati a mano, il che li rendeva costosi e relativamente rari. I piccoli monasteri di solito possedevano al massimo qualche decina di libri, forse qualche centinaio quelli di medie dimensioni.
Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso. Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore. Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature. A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus. Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta. Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolai , che produssero sia materiale religioso che profano. Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamico , sviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia araba , miniatura e legatoria.
Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa". In xilografia , un'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina.
Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cina , durante la Dinastia Han prima del a. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli. Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsa , il leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenati , Biblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti. Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddisti , il primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo.
Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hart , la prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta. Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossura , era di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolo , mentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio.
Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnature , non sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio.
Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate. Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.
Sopravvive ancor oggi, soprattutto con la dicitura Finito di stampare. Nel libro antico poteva essere rivestita di svariati materiali: pergamena, cuoio, tela, carta e costituita in legno o cartone. Poteva essere decorata con impressioni a secco o dorature. Ciascuno dei due cartoni che costituiscono la copertina viene chiamato piatto. Nel XIX secolo la coperta acquista una prevalente funzione promozionale. Ha caratterizzato a lungo l'editoria per l'infanzia e oggi, ricoperto da una "sovraccoperta", costituisce il tratto caratteristico delle edizioni maggiori. Le "alette" o "bandelle" comunemente dette "risvolti di copertina" sono le piegature interne della copertina o della sovraccoperta vedi infra.
Generalmente vengono utilizzate per una succinta introduzione al testo e per notizie biografiche essenziali sull'autore. Di norma, riporta le indicazioni di titolo e autore. I libri con copertina cartonata in genere sono rivestiti da una "sovraccoperta". Oltre al taglio "superiore" o di "testa" vi sono il taglio esterno, detto "davanti" o "concavo" , e il taglio inferiore, detto "piede". I tagli possono essere al naturale, decorati o colorati in vario modo. In questi ultimi casi, si parla di "taglio colore", nel passato usati per distinguere i libri religiosi o di valore dalla restante produzione editoriale, utilizzando una spugna imbevuta di inchiostri all' anilina anni del XX secolo.
Riporta solitamente titolo, autore, e editore del libro. Sovente riporta un motto. Assente nel libro antico. I primi incunaboli e manoscritti non avevano il frontespizio, ma si aprivano con una carta bianca con funzione protettiva. Nel XVII secolo cede la parte decorativa all' antiporta e vi compaiono le indicazioni di carattere pubblicitario riferite all'editore, un tempo riservate al colophon. In epoca moderna, le illustrazioni e parte delle informazioni si sono trasferite sulla copertina o sulla sovraccoperta e altre informazioni nel verso del frontespizio.
Nel libro antico i "nervi" sono i supporti di cucitura dei fascicoli. I nervi possono essere lasciati a vista e messi in evidenza attraverso la "staffilatura" , oppure nascosti in modo da ottenere un dorso liscio. Nel libro moderno i nervi sono di norma finti, apposti per imitare l'estetica del libro antico e conferire importanza al libro. Se esse fanno parte integrante del testo sono chiamate illustrazioni.
Esse hanno una numerazione di pagina distinta da quella del testo; vengono impresse su una carta speciale, quasi sempre una carta patinata. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione — "Libri" rimanda qui. Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libri disambigua. Disambiguazione — Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Libro disambigua. Pagina del Codex Argenteus. Storia, tecnica, strutture. Arma di Taggia, Atene, , p. All ,, of you. URL consultato il 15 agosto There are ,, of them. At least until Sunday. URL consultato il 5 giugno Scribes, Script and Books , p.
Dover Publications , p. Libro VI, capitolo Cambridge University Press , pp. Casson, op. Solo codici venivano usati dai cristiani per far copie delle Sacre Scritture e anche per altri scritti religiosi. Gli undici codici biblici di questo periodo sei con la Septuaginta e cinque con parti del Nuovo Testamento sono su codici. Colin H. Roberts e T. ISBN Hagedorn et al. Blanchard cur. Ritrovamenti del III secolo : di cui 15 sono codici greci di pergamena e 2 latini di pergamena; IV secolo : di cui 56 in pergamena; V secolo : di cui 46 in pergamena.
Willis su Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies , p. Scribes, Script and Books , pp.