Electrons In Metals Lab Report

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Electrons In Metals Lab Report



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Discovery of the Electron: Cathode Ray Tube Experiment

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These elements are in general white, differing by shades of color or casts; they are malleable, extendable and mechanical. Tutor Vista. The unionization energy is the amount of energy it takes to detach one electron from a neutral atom. The II increase from bottom to top and left to right in the erotic table. The Shod Education Foundation, Inc. This makes sense because as the atom gets smaller, the valence electrons become closer to the nucleus. This means the attractive force holding the electron is stronger and it takes more energy to pull the electron off. The unionization energy of an atom is equal to the amount of energy given off when an electron is added to an atom.

The atomic radius of an atom can be obtained by measuring the distances between atoms in chemical impounds. The atoms are pulled closely together and so the measured radius is less than if they are just touching. Clark, J. As mentioned previously, the atomic radius decrease in going from left to right across a period. This decrease can be explained in terms of the increasing effective nuclear charge decease shielding in going from left to right. This means that the valence electrons are drawn closer to the nucleus, decreasing the size f the atom. Atomic radius increases down a group, due to the increases in the orbital sizes. When a metal oxide reacts with water, they create a basic solution. Therefore, when the Alkali metals and Alkaline Earth metals react with water, a basic solution is produced.

Wire gauze was placed on top on the beaker. Tweezers were used to drop sodium into a beaker half-filled with water. Beaker was immediately recovered with wire gauze. When the reaction was complete, the contents of the beaker were tested with red and blue litmus paper. The beaker contents were disposed. Theses steps were repeated with lithium and potassium. A test tube was filled with water and inverted into the beaker.

A sample of calcium was obtained using a watch glass. The calcium was added to the beaker. The gas produced by the reaction was collected in a test tube by the downward escapement of water. When the test tube was full, the test tube was lifted out of the water and kept in a n inverted position. The gas collected was tested by bringing a burning splint to the mouth of the test tube. The solution was tested with red and blue litmus paper. Liquid is basilicas a popping sound when the burning splint went into the test Hydrogen gas is produced. Discussion of the theories discussed in the introduction on first unionization energy, atomic radius and metal oxides have all been proven in this lab.

Alkali metals are much more reactive than Alkali earth metals and this is due to unionization energy and atomic radius. The Alkali metals rates of reaction increase as you go down the periodic table and this is also explained by unionization energy and atomic radius. Metal oxides react with water to produce basic solutions and this is due to their chemical equation. Alkali metals produce hydrogen gas when they react with water due to the chemical equation and Alkali metals with oxides create basic solutions due to the oxides and water rule.

Sodium, lithium and potassium were much more reactive than calcium was and this is due to unionization energy and atomic radius. Due to a very large size of the atoms, Alkali metals have very low unionization energies. Down the group the unionization energy decreases as atomic size increases. This is due to new shells being added and the increase in the magnitude of the screening effect of inner shell electrons. The less attracted the electrons of an element are to their nucleus, the more reactive an element is because it is more willing to participate in reactions. As you go down the Periodic table, the reactivity of the Alkali metals increases and this is due to unionization energy and atomic radius. The lower the unionization energy, the more willing an Alkali metal is to lose an electron.

The larger the atomic radius, the less significant each electron becomes and therefore, the less of a problem it is for an Alkali metal to lose one. The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr aq under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate.

The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. This carbonial abstract proton from water to give NAG. Degradation pathway of AN is shown in Fig. The isolated degradation products are subjected to Mass studies to obtain their accurate mass fragment patterns. The benzene is an aromatic compound and when it reacts with wither a mixture of sulfuric acid or nitric acid creates what is known as a nitro group. The formation of the nitro group is possible because it is an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.

The creation of the nitronium ion is shown below: The reaction with the nitronium ion with bromobenzene creates three products instead of one. Depending on where the nitronium group or the alpha complexes of the reaction is on the ring, determines whether the product will be meta, para or ortho. As we know acid reacts with bubbles when combined with sodium bicarbonate. Write the chemical equation for the reaction in well A6.

The atom that the electron leaves becomes a positive ion , embedded in a sea of delocalized electrons. The interaction between the delocalized electrons and the positive ion create the force that binds and holds the metallic structure. The more electrons in the outer shell to become delocalized means the more positive ions there will be. The metallic bond and delocalized electrons within a metal are normally the cause of the properties the metal. Bromination is a type of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction where one hydrogen atom of benzene or benzene derivative is replaced by bromine due to an electrophilic attack on the benzene ring. The purpose of this experiment is to undergo bromination reaction of acetanilide and aniline to form 4-bromoacetanilide and 2,4,6-tribromoaniline respectively.

Even though the electron donating groups activate the benzene ring, their reactivities are different and result in the formation of different products during bromination. In acetanilide, the lone pair of the nitrogen is delocalized into the. The positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. The whole molecule which the electrophile and the leaving group are part of is called the substrate. The product formed after the nucleophilic attack is R-Nuc. After the nucleophilic substitution, the nucleophile can be neutral or carry a negative charge while the substrate can be neutral or positively charged. Experimental method 2.

Freshly prepared aqueous solution and analytical grade lead nitrate Pb NO3 2 , neodymium oxide Nd2O3 and selenium dioxide SeO2 were used as precursor materials. Initially, 2 g of lead nitrate and 0. Conversion of neodymium oxide into nitrate by adding 2N nitric acid in a water bath is used as dopant precursor. In the latter reaction, 3,3-dicyanophenylazirine 12 is also formed.

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