Lesage Quebec Capacity Case Study

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Lesage Quebec Capacity Case Study



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In addition, hydroelectric facilities transform the human environment. They create new obstacles to navigation, flood traditional hunting and trapping grounds, force people to change their eating habits due to the elevated mercury content of some species of fish, destroy invaluable artifacts that would help trace the human presence on the territory, and disrupt the society and culture of Aboriginal people living near the facilities.

The adoption of a Quebec statute on environmental quality in , the cancellation of Champigny Project, a planned pumped storage plant in the Jacques-Cartier River valley in , and the James Bay negotiations leading to the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement in , forced the company to reconsider its practices. In the late s, the company set up a network of 27 monitoring stations to measure the effects of the James Bay Project [] which provide a wealth of data on northern environments.

The first 30 years of studies in the James Bay area have confirmed that mercury levels in fish increase by 3 to 6 times over the first 5 to 10 years after the flooding of a reservoir, but then gradually revert to their initial values after 20 to 30 years. These results confirm similar studies conducted elsewhere in Canada, the United States and Finland. Exposure risks can be mitigated without overly reducing the consumption of fish, simply by avoiding certain species and fishing spots. Despite the fact that the transformation of a terrestrial environment into an aquatic environment constitutes a major change and that flooding leads to the displacement or death of nonmigratory animals, the riparian environments lost through flooding are partially replaced by new ones on the exposed banks of reduced-flow rivers.

The biological diversity of reservoir islands is comparable to other islands in the area and the reservoir drawdown zone is used by a variety of wildlife. The population of migratory species of interest such as the caribou have even increased to the point where the hunt has been expanded. Emissions of greenhouse gases GHG rise significantly for a few years after reservoir impoundment, and then stabilize after 10 years to a level similar to that of surrounding lakes. Another major environmental concern relates to the population of areas affected by hydroelectric development, specifically the Innu of the North Shore and the Cree and Inuit in Northern Quebec.

The hydroelectric developments of the last quarter of the 20th century have accelerated the settling process among Aboriginal populations that started in the s. Among the reasons cited for the increased adoption of a sedentary lifestyle among these peoples are the establishment of Aboriginal businesses, the introduction of paid labor, and the flooding of traditional trapping and fishing lands by the new reservoirs, along with the operation of social and education services run by the communities themselves under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement.

The report adds that a similar phenomenon was observed after the construction of roads and hydroelectric plants near isolated communities in northern Canada and Scandinavia. However, growing social problems and rising unemployment have followed the end of the large construction projects in the s. The report concludes that future economic and social development in the area "will largely depend on the desire for cooperation among the various players". Its approach is based on three principles: economic development, social development and environmental protection. The company employs professionals and managers in the environmental field and has implemented an ISO -certified environmental management system. The Other category includes public lighting systems and municipal distribution systems.

Pricing is based on the cost of delivery, which includes the cost of supply and transmission, depreciation on fixed assets and provisions for the maintenance of facilities, customer growth and a profit margin. Rates are uniform throughout Quebec and are based on consumer type and volume of consumption. All rates vary in block to mitigate any cross-subsidization effect between residential, commercial and industrial customers. However, rates are expected to go up by 3.

This preference for electric heating makes electricity demand more unpredictable, but offers some environmental benefits. Despite Quebec's very cold climate in winter, greenhouse gases emissions in the residential sector accounted for only 5. Residential use of electricity fluctuates from one year to another, and is strongly correlated with the weather. A new all-time consumption record was set on January 23, with a load of 38, MW. The price of electricity for residences and farms includes a Electric meter readings are usually conducted every two months and bills are bimonthly.

However, the company offers an optional Equalized Payment Plan allowing residential customers to pay their annual electricity costs in 12 monthly installments, based on past consumption patterns of the current customer address and the average temperature in that location. Early efforts will focus on meter data transfer, connect-disconnect, outage detection and theft reduction. For more than a century, industrial development in Quebec has been stimulated by the abundance of hydroelectric resources.

Energy represents a significant expenditure in the pulp and paper and aluminum sectors. In , industrial customers purchased The Quebec government uses low electricity rates to attract new business and consolidate existing jobs. Despite its statutory obligation to sell electric power to every person who so requests, the province has reserved the right to grant large load allocations to companies on a case-by-case basis since The threshold was set at MW from to [] and was reduced to 50 MW in the government's — energy strategy. Large industrial users pay a lower rate than the domestic and commercial customers, because of lower distribution costs.

In , the largest industrial users, the Rate L customers, were paying an average of 4. These risk sharing contracts set the price of electricity based on a series of factors, including aluminum world prices and the value of the Canadian dollar [] Those agreements are gradually being replaced by one based on published rates. On May 10, , the Quebec government signed an agreement with Alcan. The agreement, which is still in force despite the company's merger with Rio Tinto Group , renews the water rights concession on the Saguenay and Peribonka rivers. In exchange, Alcan has agreed to invest in its Quebec facilities and to maintain jobs and its corporate headquarters in Montreal. In addition, the deal will allow Alcoa to modernize the Baie-Comeau plant which will increase its production capacity by , tonnes a year, to a total of , tonnes.

This argument is disputed by large industrial customers, who point out that data from to indicate that electricity exports prices get lower when quantities increase, and vice versa. In his opinion, the high volatility of electricity markets and the transmission infrastructure physical limitations reduce the quantities of electricity that can be exported when prices are higher. Hydro Quebec gained attention with Bitcoin miners in after the crackdown on mining in China. The corporation has 15 interconnections to neighboring markets.

In , the company signed a MW deal with a group of 13 electric distributors in Vermont. The memorandum of understanding provides for a price smoothing mechanism shielding Vermont customers from market price spikes. The deal is contingent upon the enactment designating large hydro as "renewable energy". Ontario has increased capacity in the Winter, and shortages in the summer. Quebec has increased capacity in the summer, and shortages in the Winter.

Thus, the agreement serves as to achieve an cost-effective solution for both provinces. The deal will send 2TWh per year to Ontario. On the other hand, Quebec should receive capacity from Ontario during Winter's peak demand. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hydroelectric utility. Operating income. Net income. Further information: List of power stations in Quebec. Other Renewables 2. Nuclear 0. Thermal 0. Please expand the article to include this information.

Further details may exist on the talk page. March Canada portal Energy portal Renewable Energy portal Companies portal. Retrieved Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on The Canadian Encyclopedia. ISBN Spring Historica Canada. Retrieved 27 March Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. November 19, Retrieved June 9, Quebec City: Hydro-Quebec. Quebec City: Government of Quebec. Montreal Economic Institute. Archived from the original PDF on 27 March La Presse in French. Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original PDF on Le Devoir in French. Le Quotidien in French. Le Soleil in French. Retrieved May 18, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 October La Voix in French. Sorel-Tracy, Quebec. Archived from the original on March 18, Retrieved January 15, Technology Review.

Archived from the original on 6 April The Cascade Stage of the Blackout". Vermont Public Radio. Boston Business Journal. The Citizen of Laconia. Laconia, NH. Saint John, NB. Novae in French. Choc in French. Forces ISSN Archived from the original on 3 December Archived from the original on 6 July Event occurs at Archived from the original on 3 April CNW Group. En bref" in French. Business News America. ISBN X. La Grande Hydroelectric Complex. Fitch Ratings. Strategic Plan PDF. Argent in French. Archived from the original on 4 June Global Montreal. Retrieved January 23, Quebec City. Retrieved March 9, Retrieved 14 January Annual Report PDF. Archambault, Jean-Jacques In Couture, Marcel ed. Bellavance, Claude Results of tests conducted using other testing platforms e.

Passengers transfering in Hong Kong are not affected by this change, please confirm that passengers meet the entry requirements for their final destination. Returning to Taiwan: All passengers are have to do the PCR test upon arrival,and also required the strengthen independent health management with 5 days after retruning to Taiwan. Do the test on th fifth day,if the result is negative.

It will become general independent health management until 14 days. Going to hospital for PCR test on own expense and rerurn to home or quarantine hotel. And prohibit to take public transportation. Isolation requirement: Any person determined to have been exposed to COVID or shall undergo mandatory quarantine for a period up to fourteen 14 days. Quarantine requirement: Any person who has had direct contact with a person infected by COVID shall be considered to have been exposed to COVID and quarantined for a period up to fourteen 14 days; any person who has had indirect contact with COVID, such as contact with potentially contaminated surfaces, may be considered to have been exposed to COVID and quarantined for an appropriate period; any person who has had indirect contact with a person who has been exposed to COVID may be considered to have been exposed to COVID and quarantined for an appropriate period.

The Director of Public Health may issue exemptions on an individual, case-by-case basis, only based on an articulable medical justification. For more details, please refer to Palau official website. The immediate family members are defined as: the spouse or common-law partner of the person; their dependent child ; their parent or step-parent ; their guardian or tutor. Approval letter dated before 18 March For more information, please refer to Government of Canada. ETA, transit visa etc. Quarantine requirement. Exemptions: 1. Armed Forces and their spouses and children. More information can be found at the official websites English. Failure to submit the form may result in a fine. The report must contain the following information.

Those who have been infected with COVID in the past three months before departure but have recovered must provide proof of recovery. It will be checked upon disembarkation. If your COVID test result or your documentation of recovery is electronic and on a mobile device, preload this information for inspection. Passenger can travel to Australia if he or she an Australian citizen, or an Australian permanent resident. New Zealand citizens who normally reside in Australia with a subclass visa or other permanent or provisional visa can also come to Australia.

Immediate family of Australian citizen, or an Australian permanent resident spouses, legal guardians or dependents only or Passenger with special circumstances can also apply for an Travel Exemption. Passengers who are not granted an exemption will not be permitted to board a flight to Australia. Passengers who are granted a travel exemption will need to take evidence of that exemption decision to the airport. The airline will need the exemption document to liaise with the Australian Border Force to verify your travel exemption status.

Passenger may be required to pay for the costs of your quarantine. To find out more about quarantine requirements, you may refer to the website of Department of Health, Australia. Once they have completed the Australia Travel Declaration, they will receive an email with details to be shown either electronically or printed to airline staff prior to boarding. If a traveller does not complete the Australia Travel Declaration it may result in the traveller not being able to board their flight.

The certificate must include the following information : 1 Traveller name and date of birth age at time of test or passport number accepted, if date of birth not listed. All foreign travelers are banned to enter. The immediate family members of nationals of New Zealand. Passengers with a permanent resident visa and their immediate family members. Nationals or permanent residents of Australia ordinarily resident in New Zealand. Diplomats with approval. Humanitarian reasons 7. Health and other essential workers 8. Citizens of Samoa and Tonga for essential travel to New Zealand 9. The holder of a visitor visa who is the partner or dependant of a temporary work or student visa holder and who normally lives in New Zealand and is currently in New Zealand.

Passengers are subject to medical screening and quarantine for 14 days on arrival. Passengers must show to the airline the voucher confirming their allocation to a place in managed isolation while checking in. For more details, please visit the Managed Isolation Allocation System 2. Airline crew must use appropriate personal protective equipment.

They are not subject to quarantine. Effective from 26 January , all international travelers except those from Australia, Antarctica and most Pacific islands arriving in New Zealand must present a Covid test negative result taken no more than 72 hours prior to the scheduled time of flight departure. The certificate must include the following information. For more details, please refer to the official website. Exemptions : 1. Nationals of Australia and New Zealand.

Residents of New Zealand. Passengers with a visa issued by New Zealand. Transit is only allowed for maximum 24 hours at Auckland airport. Remarks : For more transit restrictions, please refer to the Official Website. No matter their nationality or trip purpose. Passengers who have been fully vaccinated should either submit the above test result or vaccination certificate. Besides,passengers departing from low-risk countries are only required to be tested after arrival, and do not need to be quarantined. The following passengers are allowed to enter. From June 19, , passengers of all nationalities, with the exception of German citizens, will be subject to a travel ban on non-essential entry into Germany.

EU citizens and other nationals with German residency, public health researchers and aged care workers, are exempt from the travel ban. For more entry restriction information of other nationals, please visit the official website of Federal Foreign Office, Germany English. For more exemption country from the travel ban, please visit the website english.

The test result can be presented in paper or electronic form and must be in German, English or French. Persons which are resides or residents in Germany and transit passengers non-Schengen — non-Schengen are exempted. The areas will be updated anytime. Transit restrictions : 1. To ensure compliance with intra-Schengen travel rules, passengers transiting through Germany to other EU countries or the Schengen area are required to hold valid travel documents or a visa to fulfill the German entry requirements.

Passengers transiting to other international destinations outside of the EU or Schengen area are permitted to transit however must stay in the international transit area of the airport and must have the valid travel documents required for the next destination. These measures apply to all persons including UK nationals and residents arriving in England from outside the common travel area comprising the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. The British Overseas Territories are not in the common travel area. Public health requirements may vary depending upon in which nation of the UK you are staying. Failure to comply with these measures is a criminal offence and you could be fined.

There are a limited set of exemptions from these measures. Check the list of exemptions carefully. You may be fined if you fraudulently claim an exemption. For more information, please refer to official website. For further information, please visit the official website. Indicates external site which may or may not meet accessibility guidelines. Opens a new window. External site which may or may not meet acsessibility guidelines.

Skip to content Skip to main navigation Skip to search Skip to footer. In response to the continuing spread of the novel coronavirus COVID , effective from 21 March , China Airlines is introducing the following epidemic prevention measures to protect the health of passengers and crew members. All CAL passengers are required to wear a face mask from check-in and during the flight inside the cabin all the time. All CAL passengers must undergo a temperature check before boarding. Any person with a forehead temperature over Short-term visitors are not allowed to enter or transit through Singapore in principle.

Long term pass holders including work pass holders and their dependants are not allowed to entry if they have travel history including transit of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar within the last 14 days. Passengers must produce the hardcopy of this Pass to airline staff at check-in at the point of departure, and to the ICA officer at the checkpoint upon arrival in Singapore.

Besides, passengers should submit vaccinated certification before boarding. From 6 Oct, , Singapore time , all passengers who meet the entry requirements and have been in Taiwan for more than 14 days prior to arrival are exempted from the pre-departure PCR. Besides, passengers will be tested upon arrival and will be exempted from quarantine if the arrival PCR test results are negative. Other travel restricitons for passengers not departing from Taiwan, please refer to Singapore Government Agency Website. All travelers entering Singapore must submit the online health declaration before arrival. Those who make false declarations will be liable for prosecution under the Infectious Diseases Act.

Effective from 9 December , all inbound passengers taking CI flights are required to submit the written basic health assessment before boarding the aircraft. To lessen the contact with crowded and to shorten the waiting time for check-in, passengers are allowed to download the assessment form in advance. Please print it out, fill out the form then submit to CI ground staff at the airport. With effect from 12 July , hours Singapore time , until further notice, all travellers with travel history to Indonesia within the last 21 days will: a not be allowed to transit or transfer through Singapore; and b those entering Singapore will be required to take a COVID PCR test within 48 hours of their flight to Singapore.

ICA Safe travel. The test result memo must be from recognized laboratories that are internationally accredited or recognized by the respective governments. It will affect their ability to obtain or sponsor immigration facilities in the future if any passenger found to have produced false or forged COVID test certificates. The passenger is allowed boarding only if the date of that first ever positive COVID PCR test result is between 22 and days prior to the date of arrival in Singapore. Please note that with this link you are visiting an external website that may not follow the same privacy, security or accessibility policies. Mainland China. Beijing Shanghai Xiamen Chengdu. North East Asia. Japan South Korea. South East Asia.

South Asia. North America. Canada United States. Australia New Zealand. Netherlands Germany United Kingdom. Entry Restrictions and Quarantine Requirements. Entry restrictions and quarantine requirements for entering Taiwan. South Korea. Suspension of all commercial return flights to Myanmar. Suspension of the issuance of all types of visa to all foreign nationals, except diplomats accredited to Myanmar, United Nations officials resident in Myanmar.

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