Donoghue V Stevenson [1932] Ac 562

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Donoghue V Stevenson [1932] Ac 562



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Donoghue v Stevenson 1932

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Thinks confinement or restraint may be imposed as a punishment with some advantage, and, on the whole, thinks fear the most effectual principle by which to reduce the insane to orderly conduct. Instance: I observed a young woman chained by the arm to the wall in a small room with a large fire and several other patients, for having run downstairs to the committee-room door.

The building has entirely the appearance of a place of confinement, enclosed by high walls, and there are strong iron grates to the windows. Many of the windows are not glazed, but have iron shutters which are closed at night. On the whole, I think St Luke's stands in need of a radical reform. Dunston was also said to board lunatics in single houses. Morris, A. Thomas Dunston's title became "Steward" He was confined in St Luke's, where he died 3. From recognised as important to provide some form of occupational therapy for patients "From it was recognised that it was important to provide some form of occupational therapy for patients. This was another idea supported by Dr Sutherland and also by John Warburton.

Whilst this was a step forward they nevertheless maintained some older forms of treatment such as the use of occasional forcible restraint. This was said to be necessary because the number of staff employed to care for the patients was relatively small, in fact a ratio of 7 to 1. William Jno Swinton, aged 37, Steward. Clementina Stinton, aged 39, Matron. Apart from Henry Lambert, the above were all born in Middlesex. Clementina Stinton, born Middlesex about , was living in Lewes in The Census return was certified on 7. Steward: Thomas Collier Walker, aged 72, born Scotland. Initially the property was rented but in it was purchased by the Hospital.

Cole patient. The research for most of the information from to the present was carried out by Jean Cullen, present owner of these postcards. The project was never brought to completion, but an Encyclopedia reference in refers to new buildings being constructed at Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire. In it was suggested that a psychiatric unit should be instituted by St Luke's in cooperation with a General hospital.

This led to the funding by the St Luke's charity of both an out-patient clinic and a psychiatric in-patient ward at the Middlesex Hospital. This continued until the new St Luke's-Woodisde Hospital opened in Until later than , the building was used as a printing works for Bank of England notes. Guy's Hospital Lunatic Ward not receiving paupers in 1. Batavia Hospital Ship Moored in the Thames, off Woolwich, this ship received naval patients from Hoxton House when they were considered fit for convalesecence. It also sent patients to Hoxton House and Bethlem. It had 1, patients in Corridor form William Charles Hood , first medical superintendent.

January Reference to alleged murder of a patient by keepers W. The inscription recording the fact was removed after the advent of the Mental Health Act to unburden the hospital of its past. From patients were buried in the neighbouring Great Northern Cenetry 'where by a considerate arrangment of the visitors, funerals are privately conducted, and not in forma pauperis Chaplain's report, CHA Hunter, R. See Claybury. In the Board of Control reported "under consideration the provision of a laboratory for clinical and pathological research". In it reported "a useful laboratory" staffed by a specially trained male nurse and supervised by an assistant medical officer.

Hunter, R. The parkland is the ground in front of the asylum, which is planted with trees. Barnet Borough have created Friern Village Park out of the land in front of the west wing. This is open to the public daily from dawn to dusk. They presumably had flats in the old asylum before that. This extract from a encyclopedia shows how the provision of "asylums" was only a small part of the Board's functions: " The Metropolitan Asylums Board , though established m purely as a poor-law authority for the relief of the sick, insane and infirm paupers, has become a central hospital authority for infectious diseases, with power to receive into its hospitals persons, who are not paupers, suffering from fever, smallpox or diphtheria.

Both the Board and the County Council have certain powers and duties of sanitary authority for the purpose of epidemic regulations. There are twelve fever hospitals, including northern and southern convalescent hospitals. For smallpox the Board maintains hospital ships moored in the Thames at Dartford, and a land establishment at the same place.

There are land and river ambulance services. Database information that Banstead became a Surrey asylum is incorrect: "Banstead Asylum was built and maintained by the Middlesex Justices prior to It became the responsibility of the London County Council on 1 April " London Metropolitan Archives Catalogue , which is confirmed by the following: 89 year old patient's death certificate shows him as dying from "chronic brain wastage" in "the London County Asylum, Banstead".

Mott at Claybury] , there will still remain much useful work of this nature to be done in the several Asylums, for which due provision should be made". Smith as director. Smith, a philosophy graduate of Edinburgh University, studied for his PhD under the pioneer of experimental psychology, Wilhelm Wundt. He worked for several years in the United States, including a period with William James. Smith and Mott were founder members of the Psychological Society in the same year that the Experimental Psychology unit was established at Claybury.

In , Smith became the first lecturer in psychology at Liverpool University and in , he became the first Combe lecturer in General and Experimental Psychology at Edinburgh University. More people needing psychiatric treatment are becoming willing to accept early hospital admission where it is necessary ""The number of beds is being decreased to allow better bed spacing, but the number of patients being treated is not decreasing; the group secretary, Mr Wilfred Mitchinson, informs me" The causes of mental illness are complicated and there is still much that is not understood. In some cases environment and the increased pace of the 20th century life plays a part. Between and the annual number of admissions to psychiatric hospitals more than doubled from 55, to , Although the total number of patients was rising until - the year which saw the introduction of tranquillisers the number of in-patients declined since then, from: , to Claybury's admission rate' tended to follow the national trend.

Admissions nearly doubled between and , from to 1, The overall number of in-patients between and declined from 2, to 2, New methods of management of patients, new rehabilitation, schemes and changed staff attitudes were equally important. Last year there were 1. There has been a "great increase" in short-stay admissions since Many more patients are now well enough to stay outside hospital with support, which may include occasional short readmissions. Once rehabilitation became available Claybury experienced a dramatic drop in long-stay patients.

Claybury has a universal reputation for its therapeutic community methods of treatment and practice and receives visits from people from all over the world interested in how the work has been developed. Rising' prices The hospital has a staff of 2,, including 19 doctors and nurses, of whom are full time. In addition to their duties at Claybury the doctors do out-patient work in general hospitals.

Cost of running Claybury is increasing year by year due mainly to rising prices and increases in salary scales. Other factors are the higher standards being provided for patients and the increased number of short- term admissions. Problems are being experienced at the hospital due to staff shortages. Most student nurses require residential accommodation and there is insufficient available for them within the hospital. Another problem is public transport. It is considered that the bus services covering the hospital could be improved and made more reliable, making it easier for staff to arrive on time for duty.

In , the first Labour controlled local council was elected - West Ham. London County Council bought all the land belonging to the Manor of Horton in Epsom, Surrey, to develop a complex of asylums which was to become the largest in Europe. Simon Cornwall's tour of all The online Horton Country Park map with history shows the area on the east of this map. This is suggested by the houses along Hook Road going north from the railway bridge.

Dates and architectural features suggest that many of these were built as homes for the staff. Near the bridge there are several with the date , when the Manor was being built. Then there are ones dated , when Horton was opened. These are followed by ones dated , when Ewell Epileptic Colony was opened. Common facilities David Cochrane p. Sewage disposal was centralised. Similarly, the cemetery and the rail link to Ewell were for all the asylums. Sports centre built round boiler-house. This is in the back streets in the crook of Hook Road and Long Grove Road - south of the cricket ground. The Manor which was a certified institution, not an asylum had its own branch..

This land or part of it was farms for West Park and Long Grove. These became "surplus to requirements" and were bought by Epsom and Ewell Council to create the park. Building may have begun in The asylum was opened in It consisted of the existing Manor House restored for staff, and corrugated iron buildings for patients. The scheme was disapproved by the Lunacy Commission, but approved by the Home Secretary. It was opened for female patients of the "comparatively quiet and harmless class".

Cochrane, D. Galey who lived at 4 Percy Cottages, Elm Road, Claygate about three mile away in a straight line - perhaps he cycled. The other four hospitals seemed to have been one branch Epsom. Medical superintendent: Edward Salterono Litteljohn. Assistant medical officer: Bridget Coffey. Chaplain: Rev Edward John Hockly. Clerk: C. House Steward: W. Plans to rebuild by By expected have mental subnormality patients, and there to be another in St Ebbas converted and in "Horton new hospital". Some ex-patients have been rehoused on Ethel Bailey Close. Re-development completed about The Manor Farm In reponse to the question "was there a farm on the land to the south? It bordered Horton Lane. Up to about it was still a thriving organic market garden and sold fruit and vegetables to the public.

After that date it gradually became more difficult to maintain as the residents were being moved out. At least up to a couple of years ago it had become more of a garden centre, selling plants to the public from some specially converted barns. I believe the garden centre is probably still there. Horton Asylum , at Epsom was opened in Built: Architect: George Thomas Hine replica of Bexley Heath Asylum 2, beds - for men and 1, for women, although at first men exceeded women. He was co-editor from to and thereafter served as associate editor until Easter 1. Only were men. In the proportion of recoveries to admissions was The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 5. Miss Mary Mitchell Thorburn was matron. Kelly's directory 9. His obituaries says "from until , he was the Deputy Superintendent of Horton Hospital".

Possible to be closed by At this time, someone with a mental crisis in an office in West London, could find themselves taken to Horton, to the south of London. Paddington Day Hospital established for rehabilitation. February to Died Summer "Unfortunately, the doctor decided to send me to Horton Hospital for a rest" - Joan Hughes "I begged my GP to get me into hospital so as I could get some care and help" Daniel Morgan 1, beds, 1, patients on The surgeon who operated on him said there were about seven "stab wounds to the legs, back, groin and buttock".

The most serous was to "to the abdoman whci punctured the abdominal wall some four inches and also penetrated the wall of the bowel". There was severe internal bleeding and the surgeon said that without prompt treatment Dr McNeill would have died. Trial transcript 1, beds Autumn reported closed and empty map , but in good condition. Redevelopment has now started. See Peter Cracknell's photographic tour The developers have renamed it Livingstone Park. This name is not recognised by the council or the post office. A small modern enclave called Horton Haven is used by about 50 ex-patients. In memory of those buried in these grounds between and ".

Words in black on a simple white plaque fixed to the railings of a field surrounded by trees on Hook Road, near the junction with Horton Road. It was a cemetery for patients from all five institutions. See George Pelham. The "burial ground All the headstones were removed It has always been referred to as Horton Cemetery" email Jane Lewis, Surrey History Centre email They cover the dates 4.

A burial plan of the area does not seem to have survived and the removal of the headstones has now made it impossible to try and find exactly where the original plots were sited, re-burying bones - a more detailed report - This says the last funeral took place in Its bids to develop have been refused by the Epsom and Ewell Council. It is possible that the whole triangle was the farm estate. St Ebbas farm is on the other west side of Hook Road. Long Grove and West Park had their own farms below. One website says each hospital had its own farm. Charles Hubert Bond was medical superintendent from to Ewell County of London War Hospital or Ewell Neurological Hospital for the care and treatment of soldiers and pensioners suffering from neurasthenia or loss of mental balance Hansard This epileptic colony is not mention in Jones and Tillotson's pamphlet on epileptic colonies.

They do mention that the Metropolitan Asylums Board established units for epileptics at Edmonton and Brentwood , and that these were taken over by London County Council in The conversion of Ewell Colony to a Mental Hospital may have taken place as part of this process. Later in ? No dormitories with over fifty patients. A Parents and Relatives Group was formed about to campaign for retention of a village community.

The council has approved construction of houses and flats on the rest of the site. Long Grove Asylum , at Epsom built to and opened in June A replica of Horton with differences to make it a little more like a Maryland, USA plan that was favoured. In the design, beds were moved from the main zig-zag crescent to autonomous villas, each with its own unfenced garden. Felix arrested in St Martin's in the Fields. He lived in Shaftesbury Avenue. See procedures for emergency admission. Maria Jose Gonzalez is researching Felix's history. Deputy medical superintendent: James Ernest Martin.

Clerk: Alfred J. House Steward: R. Matron: Miss Elspeth MacRae. Inspector: Arthur Heath. This provided links to Tower Hamlets and Hackney on the other side of London , where many patients came from. The Horton Park Children's Farm is there now. However, the piggery of Long Grove was to the north-east, so the Long Grove Farm may have stretched round the asylum. David Cochrane says that London County Council replaced the name "asylum" by "hospital" in If this is so, the first name for West Park given below, from the Hospital Database was never used. West Park Asylum at Epsom was opened in Referred to by David Cochrane as "the eleventh and the last great asylum built for London's insane".

Built: Eleventh London County Asylum. Medical superintendent: Norcliffe Roberts. Deputy medical superintendent: Edwin Lancelot Hopkins. Clerk: L. House Steward: J. West Park had 1, beds mental illness and geriatric. Manor Hospital was the local mental handicap hospital. Horton, Long Grove and St Ebbas were not local hospitals. Autumn reported closed and empty, but in good condition. The local council has produced its own development brief for the site, which the NHS has yet to approve. The site will retain facilities for patients with challenging behaviour and the cottage hospital, which is only about twenty years old. West Park Farm see external link. Epsom Hospital intensive care unit. However, the empty buildings were taken over as a military hospital. Fourth London General Hospital by early Neurological section established acting as a clearing hospital for these cases.

Medical History 1. Maudsley Hospital Medical School was opened in 1. Became a school of the University in December Central London clinics and nursing homes National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic British Hospital for Mental Disorders Beaumont Street, St Marylebone close to Harley Street in census and trade directory consisted almost entirely of nursing homes, some of whose patients were psychiatric but not certified lunatics. Charlotte Mew died at 37 Beaumont Street in The Medico Psychological Clinic operated from 14 Endsleigh Street from the autumn of and then from Brunswick Square from July to - Medico Psychological was a contemporary term for what we would now call psychiatric.

The Tavistock Clinic started in Tavistock Square in Stewart, J. Dicks , p. Psychopathic Clinic became the Portman Clinic. According to his British Medical Journal obituary, Alfred Torrie was "associated with the Tavistock Clinic, the child guidance movement, and the NationalMarriageGuidanceCouncil from their earliest days" "Both clinical and consultancy work was carried out in the Tavistock Clinic until it became part of the new NHS in , and the Institute was founded as a charitable company". However, he resigned in in order to devote his energies to the forthcoming International Congress on Mental Hygiene" Brody, E.

In he obtained a small grant from the Sir Halley Stewart Trust to empirically study the effects of early separation and deprivation. For this research, he "wanted to engage a psychiatric social worker" and hired James Robertson. The Tavistock moved to Malet Place. Then moved to Beaumont Street where it was in the s. Mayfair or Mayfair Portman Clinic not listed under P. In the Tavistock moved to Swiss Cottage. Supplement to the London Gazette H. It is a self referral service. See 6. The Cassel Hospital was set up to treat the civilian equivalent of shellshock, and admitted its first patient in ".

Cambridge: University Press, Mainly "a study of the long range results of psychotherapeutic treatment of the neuroses at the Cassel Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders. This institution, called Swaylands, was founded in , to furnish systematic treatment for the psychoneuroses on the basis that these disabilities had received too little organized attention and management from the medical profession. The interest of the founder, Sir Ernest Cassel, was aroused by the striking manifestations of neuroses among the soldiers in the world war. Ross was, until a few years ago, the medical director and moving spirit of the institution.

Swaylands furnishes rather sumptuous physical accommodations and care for some sixty patients, whose residence varies from two to six months. He was undertaking psychoanalytic training and encouraged other psychoanalysts to work at the Cassel. It soon developed a psychoanalytic tradition and a psychoanalytic underpinning of the clinical work. Psychosocial nursing practice came to the fore as a way of dealing with regression, associated with intensive individual psychotherapy.

The therapeutic community practice evolved from this way of working, and from the experiences of Tom Main at the Northfields Military Hospital during the Second World War. From that experience the work of the Families Service evolved treating children and their parents. The Families Service specialises in the assessment and treatment of children and families affected by the impact of physical, sexual and emotional abuse. From about Cassel Adult Service has developed an integrated package of care, combining six months inpatient treatment, with a further two years of group therapy and psychosocial nursing for patients in Greater London a separate Adolescent Service established external source.

Mill Hill Emergency Hospital Using a converted public school at Mill Hill. Psychiatrists from the Maudsley Hospital were recruited. Led by W. Their goal was occupational and social psychiatry. Edgar Jones About Kati Turner a patient in Henderson. Click on the plan for a picture of Cane Hill. Architect: Charles Henry Howell - The ward blocks are arranged around a D shaped network of corridors. Ian Richards describes it as an example of the Pavilion Plan in which the wards where housed in long thin ward blocks arranged around a central corridor. The pavilion design was a development of the straight corridor plan e. Friern that led on to echelon plan asylums like Severalls. The design was popular in the second half of the 19th century and it was about this time that the Recreation Hall and Water Tower became a standard feature of asylums.

The picture here is from a s AtoZ reproduced on the urban explorations site. South Croydon : Aubrey Warsash Pub. Fountain Asylum Established as a fever hospital in Architect: Thomas W Aldwinckle "the hospital was redesignated as a mental hospital and became used for the accommodation of the lowest grade of severely subnormal children. In , administration of the hospital passed to the London County Council who retained it as a hospital for mentally defective children.

Pauper lunatics from Croydon went to the Surrey asylum at Cane Hill , and this continued when Croydon became an independent County Borough in However, the "Lunacy Visiting Committee" of the new "County Borough of Croydon" also made arrangements for patients to be kept in the Isle of Wight County Asylum , others may have gone elsewhere. When he became a psychiatrist, he was generally known as T.

Pasmore, who was appointed as the first medical superintendent before it opened. Kelly's Wednesday 5. Medical Superintendent, Edwin S. There was a very high proportion of women to men in comparison with most asylums. The proportion of deaths to the asylum population was 6. Rees moved from Napsbury to be deputy physician superintendent. Rees became superintendent. His "first act" was to open the iron gates at the hospital entrance, after which they were not shut again.

Over the next few years, all ward doors were unlocked during the day, while nearly all restraint and isolation of patients were abolished. Rees was one of the authors. I felt completely at home". There was a "porter's lodge" where he booked in. His legal status is not stated, but he presumably signed in as a voluntary patient. His bed was in a ward "for light cases - alcoholics and neurotics". This part appears civilised. In the morning he sits in the living room of his ward and reads morning papers with other patients. Later he has dinner with others in the dining room. He also visited the sitting room of the "best women's ward", where one woman arranged flowers, another played the piano and three others watched television.

Elsewhere in the hospital he visited a "dormitary crammed with beds". This is the worst ward he has seen - dealing with the "hard core of chronic patients". He said that the old hospital was like a prison and described how staff often had to "retaliate" when patients became violent and often "hit back in self defence". Drugs, ECT , insulin and "open doors" had put an end to all of that. The Chief Superintendant T. Rees was interviewed.

He described the hospital's main successes as the removal of the rails around the hospital and handing over of responsibility to patients. During Rees left Croydon and started a private practice in Harley Street. He was made a freeman of the borough. Stephen MacKeith may have succeeded Rees at Croydon. May, A. Sheldon and S. The major effects are seen in reduction of readmission rates to the mental hospital, and in a redistribution of patients among the wider range of facilities" March Letter in Psychiatric Bulletin from Stephen Pasmore, Ham Gate Avenue, Richmond, Surrey, about his father, Edwin S.

Pasmore, who was appointed the first Medical Superintendent of that hospital before it was opened, and attributed to him the origin of the term 'mental hospital'. Furthermore the hospital was the first of its kind in the country to have an operating theatre and X-ray department to bring it into line with the general hospitals of the day. It has since been renamed the Warlingham Park Hospital.

The Clock Tower, described as hideous in , is now a Grade two listed building. The hospital was closed in February , and demolished in summer , but the clock tower and many trees have been preserved. The site is being redeveloped for housing. A private house before the first world war. Taken over in November with beds for 51 officers. In March , Mrs. As a Prison Service establishment it has had several roles as a young offender institution, remand centre, and a deportees prison. It became a resettlement prison in ".

Date that outpatients clinics started at Hackney Hospital is not known. But none listed in If the Duly Authorised Officer was summoned to a crisis in Hackney in , the person might be taken by ambulance to St Clements or another London observation unit or directly to Long Grove. A study in East London published. Reports of the Institute of Community Studies number 7. Before this there were out-patient clinics, but the in-patient beds were at Long Grove Hospital. However, the in-patient beds at Hackney Hospital appear to pre-date - See below]. Born Died 9. April After this date, all hospital admissions for mental illness were to units within the borough.

But existing patients remained at Long Grove. St Lawrences, Caterham , previously the catchment area hospital for mental handicap, ceased taking Hackney patients in Friday 6. In Hackney's Director of Social Services told councillors that mentally handicapped people were no longer sent outside the borough "except in exceptional circumstances". On page 98 of the book , for example, we learn that at Maybury and possibly only at Maybury" "we do it all without any chronic units" P sych. Amongst its last residents were a group of severely disabled children who moved to a hostel in Malpas Road, Hackney.

The Eastern Hospital had a long history as a fever hospital and as a hospital for diseases of the skin. Its use as a home for children with learning difficulties is not mentioned in the extensive historical notes on the Hospital Database. Hamhp News. This was the then eastern terminus of the Eastern Counties Railway from London. The large building is Essex Hall, intended to be the railway hotel.

Instead it became an asylum. For women. Probably renamed St Faith's Hospital at this point. See Ewell Epileptic Colony Hospital Plan : beds in , of them for epilepsy, plus 15 acute and 14 geriatric. Development to be completed by It was then bought and converted by the Metropolitan Asylums Board and operated as St David's Hospital for "sane epileptics" until For men.

Probably renamed St David's Hospital at this point. Its archives are the only ones for a private asylum held in the London Metropolitan Archives. In , passed to the London County Council. The nursing staff establishment provides for male and female nurses. At present, the male staff is and the female staff 56 full-time and 66 part-time" Hackney patients November The only large mental handicap hospital planned to close "The closure of Darenth was driven by the determination of learning disability managers locally to run an entirely different service and the South East Thames Regional Manager responsible plus the Chief Nurse called Audrey Emerton now Baroness Emerton.

It was very visionary at the time. Clinicians were marginal in that case. She was covered by insurance anyway, so the decision just made sure the teacher received some money whilst he could not work. This is interesting for anyone who is starting out in a profession, or doing an activity for the first time — you only get better with practice, so does it seem unfair to expect you to be at the level of a careful and competent person doing that activity the first time around?

If you can own your body you can sell it, including selling organs, prostitution or selling yourself into slavery. It also means you can decide whether to destroy it, but until suicide was a crime. Obviously this was more important for prosecuting those planning or encouraging suicide, which is still illegal, or attempted suicide, than for trying to prosecute people who had succeeded in killing themselves! The claimants in Yearworth had deposited semen samples with a clinic before undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, having been told that the therapy could make them infertile.

The hospital did not store the samples with enough care and they were damaged, and the men in the case suffered psychiatric injury when they discovered they now could not have children. The problem was that because the semen was no longer part of their body they could not bring a claim for personal injury, but the law would not have called bodily fluids personal property for the reasons set out above. However, the court did decide that the semen samples were personal property because of the control the men had over it — they were the ones who could decide what to do with it, despite some limitations set by the Human Fertilisation and Embryo Act , and so the relationship had most of the hallmarks of ownership.

The claimants could therefore claim for the psychiatric damage which resulted from the negligent damage of their property. This case seems like the right decision on the facts, but it opens a whole area of law which has normally been tightly closed. Can you think of similar cases where we might be less comfortable with such an outcome? And how should the courts decide where to draw the line? What if you change your mind about saving your friend and decide to sell it?

Lucasfilm v Ainsworth [] UKSC 39 Copyright grants a monopoly over the reproduction of mostly artistic works for up to 70 years after the death of an author. In Lucasfilm v Ainsworth the man who designed the Stormtrooper helmets for Lucasfilm to be used in the Star Wars films had begun to reproduce and sell them worldwide without their permission. The design right protection in the sculptures had ended so Mr Ainsworth was free to continue making and selling them. This was great news for Mr Ainsworth. However, is it fair to say that something created for the purpose of being in a film is never a sculpture or work of art in its own right?

The shorter protection period prevents creators of such works and the producers of the films from controlling reproduction of items which were created for the film and might have helped to make back a lot of the money put into it — think of the cost of replicas you buy in gift shops at amusement parks! Do we think they deserve to be protected from copying without permission or a licence for over 70 years, the same as a painting? This case is also important for understanding how important it is that legislation is clear on what it intends to achieve, and that judges interpret it clearly. She had decided that one day her life will become unbearable and that she will want to go to Switzerland to end it, where this is legal under certain circumstances.

If she did this relatively soon then she would be able to end her own life, but if she were to wait longer then her husband would have to help her and she was concerned that he would be prosecuted for assisted suicide when he returned to the UK. This has not however been prosecuted before in similar circumstances, and Mrs Purdy asked the Director of Public Prosecutions DPP for guidance as to what factors the Prosecution Service would use in deciding whether to prosecute her husband. The DPP refused to publish guidance and she brought a claim that this was incompatible with her Article 8 right to a private life under the Human Rights Act.

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