The Nutcracker Research Paper

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The Nutcracker Research Paper



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The ceilings are ten feet high on the first floor, while nine feet is the elevation of the second and eight feet that of the third floor. Usually the dining room is fifteen feet square and finished off in quartered sycamore. Like the hall, the reception room is done off in quartered oak, but is circular in form and has a diameter of ten feet. In the kitchen is a glazed fireplace, while below stairs, speaking from a first floor level, are the cellar and laundry, with a depth of eight feet, and an asphalt double concrete floor.

A large bathroom with tiled floors takes up the remaining space of the second story. Rising to the third floor we find plain cypress as the invariable finish of the apartments, which comprise two servants' rooms, a card or sitting room and a billiard parlor wainscoted on the sides and provided with seats for the players and onlookers. It may be noted further that the reception room and dining room are also wainscoted six feet high. Of the approximately homes initially built by Johnson, about half remain; while the others have been razed and replaced by large Mediterranean villas , condos , as well as semi and fully attached homes.

Very few of the newer homes fit into the historic context of Dyker Heights, and in contrast to Brooklyn's contemporaneous Ditmas Park and Prospect Park South developments, many of the original surviving homes have been extensively renovated and remodeled. Dyker Heights is now most famous for its Christmas lights and decorations erected each year by its residents. It has been called "Con Ed's warmest heartthrob," [35] the "undisputed capital of Christmas pageantry," [36] and the "king of the Christmas lights. Formally, the lighting and Christmas decorations begin on the last Thursday of November Thanksgiving and they remain until the first days of January, with mid-December being the days most visited by tourists. Although in which December the lights began is unclear, newspaper reports and tours of the area suggest it started sometime in the s.

In one Lou Singer began running tours Singer's Brooklyn through the most elaborately light parts of Bensonhurst , Canarsie , Bay Ridge , and Dyker Heights where one could find "designer lighting. Early on, the two most noted homes were on 84th Street, between 11th and 12th Avenues, directly across from one another. In December , the Spatas' home was covered in lights, illuminated soldiers and choirboys, and other Christmas figures. The inside is decorated with 50 motorized dolls, miniature villages and many gifts. Outside Santa, played by her nephew, greets children and others who pass by. The white mansion, owned by Alfred Polizzotto and his family, is adorned with a pair of foot 8. The front lawn has rearing horses and a quartet of dancers.

In , Polizzotto was diagnosed with lymphoma, which was successfully treated the following year. To celebrate his triumph, Polizzotto mounted the display the following year and ever since. In , Polizzotto died; however, his family has continued the tradition in his honor. In , the Casos, who moved to Dyker Heights in and have since relocated, had Midwood artist Carl Oliveri design Charles Dickens' "A Christmas Carol," which included 29 life-size figures on their front lawn at 84th St. The neighborhood is part of New York's 11th congressional district , represented by Republican Nicole Malliotakis as of [update].

Abbate Jr. Dyker Heights is served by Brooklyn Community Board The incarceration rate of per , people is lower than that of the city as a whole. The 68th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by The precinct reported 2 murders , 16 rapes , 59 robberies , felony assaults, 96 burglaries , grand larcenies , and 86 grand larcenies auto in As of [update] , preterm births and births to teenage mothers are less common in Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights than in other places citywide.

In Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights, there were 95 preterm births per 1, live births compared to 87 per 1, citywide , and The concentration of fine particulate matter , the deadliest type of air pollutant , in Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights is 0. Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights generally has a similar ratio of college-educated residents to the rest of the city as of [update]. The Dyker branch is located at 13th Avenue, near 82nd Street. The one-story structure, opened in , was designed by Daniel Laitin and features a blue-green glazed facade. The McKinley Park location was originally a "deposit station" with a small circulating collection, which opened in The library moved to the current 7,square-foot Southwestern Dyker Heights contains the Dyker Beach Park and Golf Course , a public park and a municipal, hole, [] championship golf course.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Neighborhood in Brooklyn in New York City. Neighborhood in Brooklyn. The Saitta House , an original Dyker Heights home. See also: Brooklyn streets. Retrieved March 18, Accessed June 16, Retrieved October 3, Accessed May 5, Retrieved Archived from the original PDF on Find a Grave. Johnson's Sudden Death. Retrieved 18 January — via NYTimes. Lyon Company, pp. Lyon, p. Accessed June 14, NYC Health. Retrieved March 2, Retrieved September 8, New York Post. June 4, Retrieved March 1, Census Reporter. July 22, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved December 5, Kings County Politics. The New York Times. Brooklyn Eagle. Retrieved 5 November Intertravel NYC. December 25, Yarrow, Andrew L.

December 22, December 15, December 17, House Election Results ". January 28, Retrieved February 21, Retrieved November 17, NY State Senate. Retrieved 18 January Abbate, Jr". Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved October 6, New York City Fire Department. September 10, Retrieved March 14, March 18, Retrieved June 12, Retrieved March 6, Retrieved October 5, Archived from the original on Retrieved June 2, Brooklyn Public Library.

August 19, August 22, Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved December 9, October Retrieved December 1, November June 10, August 8, Remembering Dennis O'Berg". Archived from the original on 20 July The New York City Council. May Bloomberg Signs Legislation Renaming 94 Streets". The anaerobic energy release [which is another aspect of the energy supply for resynthesizing the adenosine triphosphate ATP consumed during exercise, especially maximal- to supramaximal-intensity exercises] had not been quantified. This principle was further used to estimate the accumulated oxygen deficit during a high-intensity intermittent exercise [ 12 ] by the first author of the original paper describing Tabata training [ 12 ] Izumi Tabata , who had studied at the Institute of Muscle Physiology in Oslo, Norway under the supervision of Dr.

Hermansen and learned the principle directly from him. Tabata training is defined as training at the intensity that exhausts subjects during the 7th or 8th sets of s bicycle exercise bouts with a s rest between the exercise bouts. Regarding similar protocol training that uses other types of exercise including running and various body-weight-bearing exercises e. In this review, we therefore focus on Tabata training, defined as bicycle training at the intensity that exhausts subjects during seven or eight sets of s bicycle exercise bouts with a s rest between the bouts.

At more than 20 years after the publication of the original study [ 12 , 13 ], the exercise intensity has not been emphasized; only the procedure of the training has been featured, especially among general exercisers. For example, following such a protocol eight sets of a s exercise with a s rest between the exercise bouts using walking as the exercise can be expected to result in no improvement of the V O 2 max. Only training adopting the protocol with an exercise intensity that exhausts the subject after 7—8 sets of the s exercise bout with a s rest between the exercise bouts i. Such increases in the two energy-releasing systems i. In a popular method of interval training, an individual exercises at low intensity between bouts of high-intensity exercise [ 1 ].

In contrast, intermittent training including Tabata training [ 12 , 13 ] , exercisers completely stop the exercise and rest for a while. Intermittent training and interval training thus differ significantly, and it is important to keep in mind that Tabata training is an intermittent-exercise training method. Weston et al. In contrast, in the original and authentic Tabata training protocol, the exercise intensity is constant i.

Since the oxygen demand for Tabata training is higher than the V O 2 max i. The endurance profile of most exercises and sports is thought to depend on the amount of energy output per unit of time. Since the energy output i. The aerobic-energy release is well quantified by measuring the V O 2. Since, at a submaximal exercise intensity, the energy from the anaerobic energy-releasing system is supplied only at the beginning of the exercise, the relative contribution of this system is low [ 27 ]. As evaluating stress of a specific exercise on aerobic energy-releasing system as a training, stress on the anaerobic energy-releasing system can be evaluated by comparing the accumulated oxygen deficit during an exercise to the anaerobic capacity i.

However, high-intensity intermittent exercise, which is often used as a training method, had not been evaluated using the same methods until we assessed the energy release from both the aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing systems during two different intermittent exercise protocols [ 12 ], which are used by some of the top Japanese speed skaters. We analyzed the two training protocols for the following reasons. The two training protocols were introduced by Kouichi Irisawa, who was a head coach of the Japanese Speed Skating Team in the s.

Tabata of the original investigation of Tabata training [ 12 , 13 ] stayed in the same dormitory at the University of Oslo for most of Irisawa as the fitness coach for the Albertville Olympics to be held in Irisawa and used by top Japanese skaters were compared in a study [ 12 ] conducted at a laboratory at the National Institute of Fitness and Sport in Kanoya, which is located in the southernmost region of Japan. The results of that investigation showed that the accumulated oxygen deficit during the exhaustive intermittent exercise of IE1 exercise intensity: approx. In addition, the IE1 protocol recruited the oxygen delivery system maximally since the oxygen uptake measured during the last part of the IE1 protocol was not different from the V O 2 max of the subjects Fig.

Accumulated oxygen deficit during the intermittent exercise IE 1 protocol Tabata training and the IE2 protocol and the anaerobic capacity, i. Peak oxygen uptake during the last 10 s of the IE1 Tabata training exercise and IE2 protocols, and the maximal oxygen uptake [ 12 ]. In contrast, neither the anaerobic system nor the aerobic system seemed to be fully stressed during the exhaustive intermittent exercise of the IE2 protocol exercise intensity: approx. These results demonstrated that, for the purpose of improving both the anaerobic and aerobic energy-releasing systems, the IE1 protocol was superior to the IE2 protocol. The IE1 protocol was also confirmed to stimulate both the aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing systems maximally.

Since the human body has only these two energy-supplying systems, the IE1 protocol can be regarded is one of the most energetically effective exercise training protocols for maximally improving both the aerobic and anaerobic energy-supplying systems. As mentioned above, since the IE1 training protocol emerged during discussions between a top coach who had an instinct for develop new training methods based on interactions with athletes and an exercise physiologist who was good at scientifically analyzing the characteristics of exercise, Tabata training was both clinical practical - and bedside rink-side or gym-side -initiated training. After the above-described results were reported to Mr. Irisawa, he stopped using the IE2 protocol as part of the training menu for the skaters and concentrated on the use of the IE1 protocol i.

For anaerobic energy quantification, especially during 0—10 min of exhaustive exercise of which the exercise intensity is above the V O 2 max, an estimation of the oxygen demand for such exercise is required. For a submaximal-intensity exercise, the oxygen demand for a specific exercise is measured as the oxygen uptake during the exercise. For a submaximal-intensity exercise, the oxygen demand of which the oxygen uptake has not been measured, the oxygen demand can be estimated quite accurately by interpolation from the linear relationship between the exercise intensity W [ 12 , 13 ] Fig. Principle used to calculate the accumulated oxygen deficit for high-intensity intermittent exercise [ 12 ].

This relationship was established by measuring the oxygen uptake at 6—9 different intensities of min exercises. This time-consuming procedure, which need at least 3 days of testing, has been also used to measure the V O 2 max in Scandinavian countries. Without this leveling off, the measurement is regarded not as the V O 2 max but rather as the peak V O 2.

The measurement of the oxygen uptake at ten different intensities of 4-min exercises could be used to establish the relationship between the oxygen uptake and work rate at a submaximal level [ 30 ]. In contract to submaximal-intensity exercise, the oxygen uptake of a supramaximal-intensity exercise cannot be measured; if the oxygen uptake at such high intensity is higher than the V O 2 max, it is the V O 2 max of the subject. It should be noted that, for estimating oxygen demand at supramaximal intensity, the relationship between exercise intensity the work rate and the submaximal level oxygen uptake measured by an incremental test [e.

The oxygen uptake at a specific exercise intensity measured by an incremental test procedure, which normally allots an identical time 1—2 min for each exercise intensity, does not necessarily represents the oxygen uptake or oxygen demand, which is balanced with energy for re-synthesizing the ATP consumed during exercise at the specific intensity. The time necessary for the oxygen uptake to reach the steady state of oxygen consumption at a higher exercise intensity is longer than that at a lower exercise intensity [ 27 ]. Therefore, the original investigation of anaerobic capacity MAOD measured oxygen uptake during 6—9 bouts of min constant-intensity exercises whose intensity ranges from approx. The original investigation [ 10 , 12 , 13 ] used such a time-consuming test for the following reasons: 1 to measure the V O 2 max correctly by ascertaining the leveling-off, and 2 to correctly estimate the oxygen demand at supramaximal intensity for calculating the accumulated oxygen deficit, which is defined as the difference between the total accumulated oxygen demand L , [i.

The results of that study suggested that this high-intensity intermittent exercise is a very effective tool to improve sports-related physical fitness. At that time point, the intensity i. The important thing is that, during this training period, the exercise intensity that exhausts the subject within 7—8 sets of the s exercise should be prescribed during the entire training period. Effect of endurance training ET and intermittent training IT; Tabata training on the anaerobic capacity, i. It is well known that there is a site specificity of training and its effects. As an example of site specificity, only the functioning of the lower-leg muscles is improved by exercise using the lower legs, e.

No effects are expected to be found in the functioning of the arm muscles. There is also specificity regarding energy-releasing systems. During the last session of the IE1 protocol, the oxygen uptake reached the V O 2 max which is a measure of aerobic capacity , and the accumulated oxygen deficit of the training exercise amounted to the MAOD which is a measure of anaerobic capacity.

Since humans have only two energy-releasing systems and the IE1 protocol stresses both systems maximally, training using the IE1 protocol can be regarded as one of the ultimate aerobic and anaerobic training methods. Consequently, according to the system specificity of training and its effects on energy release, Tabata training enhances both the V O 2 max and the MAOD.

However, the oxygen uptake at the end of training using the IE1 protocol reaches the V O 2 max. This result, i. This was simply because, for the calculation of the oxygen deficit value needed for the determination of the anaerobic energy release of the training, the oxygen uptake had to be measured. For example, Foster et al. As shown by Foster et al. The use of this training method needs 1 high motivation of elite athletes who want to elevate both their aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing systems, and 2 convincing instruction to the athletes from coaches who fully understand the scientific evidence regarding this method. In their efforts to devise a more efficient training method than Tabata training, Kouzaki and Tabata compared several other high-intensity intermittent bicycle exercise protocols in terms of the recruitment of the aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing systems [ 34 ].

This was because the oxygen deficit during the IDE protocol and the oxygen uptake during the last part of the protocol were not significantly different from those observed during the IE protocol i. In addition, the peak lactate concentration after the IDE protocol was significantly higher than that observed after the IE protocol. To ensure a full recruitment of anaerobic energy release, a somewhat low intensity is required.

Ogita et al. Principally, the MAOD is proportional to the muscle volume. This is because the greater the muscle volume, the more creatine phosphate is available in whole muscle and the more lactate accumulates; creatine phosphate and lactate are the bases of the alactic and lactic energy release that respectively comprise anaerobic energy release. Changes in the MAOD after resistance training that enlarges muscle volume were thus investigated by Hirai and Tabata [ 36 ]. In that study, the training consisted of a high-intensity intermittent exercise training IT; in this case, Tabata training for 6 weeks and IT plus resistance training RT for the subsequent 6 weeks. Further research can be expected to elucidate this issue.

During the IT-alone period, both the maximal power during the Wingate test, and the circumference cm of thigh muscle were not changed. These results may indicate that 1 Tabata training itself does not affect anaerobic power, and 2 an increase in muscle mass is necessary to induce an increase in anaerobic power. This result may indicate that, in terms of high-intensity intermittent training, a different strategy is necessary for further improvement in the aerobic energy-releasing system.

Hickson et al. Studies that eliminate the interference of one type of fitness over another type should be devised to address this issue. Effects of the IT and RT on the maximal oxygen uptake [ 36 ]. Specific training induces increased expressions of proteins that have specific physiological functions in skeletal muscles recruited by training. For example, aerobic training increases the enzyme activities of citrate synthase CS, which is a key enzyme for oxidative metabolism [ 40 ] , and high-intensity exercise training increases glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase PFK , which are possible rate-limiting enzymes of anaerobic metabolism [ 41 , 42 ].

Sprint training with a very short duration of exercise i. Skeletal muscle adaptation to Tabata training was recently reported [ 44 ]. These elevated enzyme activities may have contributed to the increases in the V O 2 max 9. Those results suggested that dozens of proteins that are known to be increased by this transcriptional coactivator may be increased after Tabata training [ 47 ]. Since it was not feasible for rats to run intermittently at a high intensity speed on a treadmill, swimming was introduced to model Tabata training for rats. The reason that this protocol has been used in previous studies is that the protocol was shown, by trial and error, to raise the blood lactate concentration to levels that were similar to those measured for humans and to elevate the enzyme activity of citrate synthase, which is an oxidative enzyme in mitochondria [ 48 ].

Indeed, the above-cited clinical study [ 44 ] demonstrated that 79 genes including genes involved in glucose metabolism, the mitochondria membrane, the extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis were increased in skeletal muscle by training. A proteomics analysis of rat muscles after Tabata-model training revealed that the protein expression of glycogen phosphorylase the first enzyme of glycogenolysis was increased [ 49 ]. It is well documented that low-volume interval training increases skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes [ 50 ]. Robinson et al. In terms of the increase in the V O 2 max after HIIT, there has been some disagreement regarding whether the main location of the occurrence of adaptation is central cardiorespiratory: cardiac output or peripheral skeletal muscle: metabolic enzymes.

However, Burgomaster et al. Daussin et al. Macpherson et al. The authors of the latter study attributed the initial increase in cardiac output after the early phase of the high-intensity interval training to plasma volume expansion [ 55 ], which was apt to occur in their sedentary subjects with lower V O 2 max values compared to those of the recreationally active subjects of the Macpherson et al. Further research is necessary to address these findings. In the original Tabata et al. However, as Fox et al. This transcriptional coactivator activates the transcription of proteins that have physiological functions, and its activity remained high for several days.

This enhanced capacity allows more muscle lactate formation, which results in proportional glycolytic ATP production for high-intensity exercises. Shark et al. Endurance training increases capillary density [ 59 ]. Cocks et al. Using an animal model of Tabata training, Hasegawa et al. This investigation showed that both animal model of Tabata training and aerobic training induced increased expression of eNOS, which produces nitric oxide NOx , which subsequently may dilate arteries, suggesting that Tabata training might improve arterial function via the same mechanism as conventional aerobic training and may decrease the risk of cardiovascular events.

There has been a rumor that Tabata training is effective for losing body weight. However, the energy consumption during a high-intensity short-duration training exercise is negligible. The thermic effects of meals ingested after Tabata training have also not been evaluated. In contrast, a recent investigation reported that oxygen uptake after lunch and supper ingested 1. This study showed that EPOC during the first 1. Energy consumption calculated from oxygen uptake during min warm up exercise WU , Tabata training exercise was EPOC during the first 1.

Summation of the previously described 4 energy consumption are This value that is regarded as elevated energy consumption by Tabata training exercise could be the lowest in terms of securing weight reduction. However, after 6-week Tabata training, body weight was not changed [ 13 ]. Therefore, weight reducing effect of Tabata training seems to be minimal.

The Tsuji et al. The first article regarding Tabata training was published over 30 years ago, and no further paper was published by the authors of the original article until recently. There has thus been some confusion about Tabata training, especially concerning the methodology. The following practical tips for executing authentic Tabata training are presented in order to prevent the misunderstanding of Tabata training in future studies. First, before an individual engages in Tabata training, warming up for 10 min at approx. The exercise intensity should be determined individually. The subject should then be instructed to continue bicycling until exhaustion described below after a s cycling bout with a s rest interval.

If the subject can continue to bicycle for more than eight sets, the exercise intensity should be increased. If the subject cannot bike for less than six sets, the exercise intensity is reduced. Exhaustion during bicycle exercise is determined as follows. For bicycling exercise, it is important to raise the pedaling frequency to the fixed rate as soon as possible to set the correct load for the subject. A pedaling frequency of rpm might be good for cyclists. In the original Tabata study, 90 rpm was used. The reason why we use a higher pedaling frequency than that used for normal bicycle exercise 50—70 rpm is that without such a high pedaling frequency, a high-enough load cannot be set for heavy-weight top athletes.

In the original Tabata training experiments, Monark bicycles whose highest load is 7 kP were used, but even with such a heavy weight, the load is not high enough to exhaust elite athletes within 7—8 sets of Tabata training if 50—70 rpm is used. By using 90 rpm, an adequate work rate, which is a function of weight kP and rpm, is assured for highly trained athletes. Because high-intensity exercise may reduce immunological functions [ 65 ], it can be speculated that in terms of the prevention of any type of cancer that may be initiated by low immunological function, high-intensity exercise training may have no effects or adverse effects.

However, the results of a recent study suggested that Tabata training may help prevent colon cancer by enhancing the secretion and elevating the blood concentration of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine SPARC Fig. These biological results may explain the epidemiological finding that vigorous exercise may help prevent and not worsen colon cancer [ 67 , 68 ].

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