The Mediterranean Landscape
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Cornell University offers accredited, license-qualifying landscape architecture degrees at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The undergraduate landscape architecture degree is the only one of its kind in the Ivy League. Both academic programs provide a sound grounding in theory and technology which is deployed through the design studio and supplemental courses that inform the design process. Due to its unique position within the university, the Department of Landscape Architecture promotes interaction and collaboration with other academic fields, including horticulture, architecture, city and regional planning, fine arts, and the natural and social sciences. This virtual lecture is open to the public. Walter and his studio create urban spaces that resonate with and enrich the lives of current residents while also honoring communal histories.
Hood melds architectural and fine arts expertise with a commitment to designing ecologically sustainable public spaces that empower marginalized communities. An international forum for discussion and debate over issues of urban design and management Stands as a trustworthy source of information on issues of urban design and management, for researchers, urban designers, architects, planners, landscape architects, developers and others Presents original articles, reviews, books and expert commentary Journal Metrics Downloads: , Scopus CiteScore: 1.
Latest issue. Editorial Cognitive, behavioral, social, and cultural characteristics of the city and urban design Mahyar Arefi , Noha Nasser. Original Article Scale or size? After the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy citizens began creating gardens for purely aesthetic purposes. Egyptian tomb paintings of the 16th century BC  are some of the earliest physical evidence of ornamental horticulture and landscape design depicting lotus ponds surrounded by symmetrical rows of acacias and palms.
Another ancient tradition is of Persia : Darius the Great was said to have had a " paradise garden " and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were renowned as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Persian gardens were designed along a central axis of symmetry. Persian influences extended to Hellenistic Greece after Alexander the Great. Epicurus had a garden where he walked and taught, and he bequeathed it to Hermarchus of Mytilene. Alciphron also referenced private gardens in his writing. The most influential ancient gardens in the western world were those of Ptolemy in Alexandria , Egypt and the horticultural tradition that Lucullus brought to Rome. Wall paintings in Pompeii , Italy attest to later elaborate development.
The wealthiest Romans built extensive villa gardens with water features, including fountains and rivulets, topiary , roses, and shaded arcades. Archeological evidence survives at sites such as Hadrian's Villa. Vitruvius , a Roman author and engineer, wrote the oldest extant design manual in 27 BC. De architectura libri decem Ten Books on Architecture addressed design theory, landscape architecture, engineering, water supply, and public projects, such as parks and squares.
Vitruvius asserted that firmitas firmness, durability, strength , utilitas commodity, convenience, utility and venustas delight, loveliness, beauty were the primary objectives of design. Some still consider these elements essential to quality design of landscape. Byzantium and Moorish Spain continued horticultural traditions after the 4th century AD and the decline of Rome. By this time, a separate horticultural tradition formed in China , which was transmitted to Japan , where it developed into aristocratic gardens featuring miniaturized and simulated natural landscapes centered on ponds, and the severe Zen garden form featured at temples. The rediscovery of descriptions of antique Roman villas and gardens led to the creation of a new form of garden, the Italian Renaissance garden , in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
The Spanish Crown built the first public parks of this era in the 16th century, both in Europe and the Americas. In the 19th century, a welter of historical revivals and Romantic cottage-inspired gardening emerged. In England , William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll were influential proponents of the wild garden and the perennial garden , respectively. Andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted adapted European forms for North America, especially influencing the design of public parks , campuses and suburban landscapes.
Olmsted's influence extended well into the 20th century. The 20th century saw the influence of modernism in the garden: from the articulate clarity of Thomas Church to the bold colors and forms of the Brazilian Roberto Burle Marx. Environmental consciousness and sustainable design practices, such as green roofs and rainwater harvesting , are becoming widely practiced as innovations in these fields continue to develop. In the Western Hemisphere, various Mesoamerican cultures, such as the Maya , Mixtecs , and Nahua peoples including the Aztec Empire had both practical and aesthetic gardening traditions. The Maya made extensive usage of forest gardens for food and medicinal plant production, including with their cities.
Mesopotamia , the "land between the Rivers" Tigris and Euphrates, comprises a hilly and mountainous northern area and a flat, alluvial south. Evidence for their gardens comes from written texts, pictorial sculpture, and archaeology. Temple gardens developed from the representation of a sacred grove; several distinct styles of royal garden are also known. The courtyard garden was enclosed by the walls of a palace, or on a larger scale was a cultivated place inside the city walls.
At Mari on the Middle Euphrates c. It is crossed by raised walkways of baked brick; the king and his entourage would dine there. At Ugarit c. The 7th century BC, Assyrian king Assurbanipal is shown on a sculpture feasting with his queen, reclining on a couch beneath an arbour of vines, attended by musicians. Trophies of conquest are on display, including the dismembered head of the king of Elam hanging from a fragrant pine branch. A Babylonian text from the same period is divided into sections, as if showing beds of soil with the names of medicinal , vegetable, and herbal plants written into each square, perhaps representing a parterre design. On a larger scale, royal hunting parks were established to hold the exotic animals and plants which the king had acquired on his foreign campaigns.
King Tiglath-Pileser I c. From around 1, BCE, the Assyrian kings developed a style of city garden incorporating a naturalistic layout, running water supplied from river headwaters, and exotic plants from their foreign campaigns. Assurnasirpal II — BCE lists pines of different kinds, cypresses and junipers of different kinds, almonds, dates, ebony, rosewood, olive, oak, tamarisk, walnut, terebinth and ash, fir pomegranate, pear, quince, fig and grapevines: "The canal water gushes from above into the gardens; fragrance pervades the walkways; streams of water as numerous as the stars of heaven flow in the pleasure garden Like a squirrel, I pick fruit in the garden of delights.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are listed by classical Greek writers as one of the Seven Wonders of the World — places to see before you die. The excavated ruins of Babylon do not reveal any suitable evidence, which has led some scholars to suggest that they may have been purely legendary. Lakes and pavilions and a platform incorporate ancient Indian garden designs as seen in Shalimar Bagh, Srinagar , India. Hindu Rajput -style courtyard garden at Amer Fort. Ancient Indian gardens are mentioned in several ancient Hindu texts including Rigveda , Ramayana , and Mahabharata. Buddhist accounts mention bamboo grove which was gifted by King Bimbisara to Buddha. Digha Nikaya, a Buddhist text, also mentions Buddha staying in the mango orchard of the Jivaka monastery, gifted by the physician Jivaka.
Arama in Sanskrit means garden, and sangharama is a place where buddhist monk community lived in a garden like place. In Buddha's time, Vaishali was a prosperous and populous town full of parks and gardens and according to Lalit Vistara , it resembled a city of God. Emperor Ashoka 's inscriptions mention the establishment of botanical gardens for planting medicinal herbs, plants, and trees. They contained pools of water, were laid in grid patterns, and normally had chattri pavilions with them.
The Kama Sutra mentions details on house gardens and that a good wife should plant vegetables, bunches of sugarcane, clumps of the fig trees, mustard, parsley and fennel, various flowers like jasmine, rose and others likewise be planted and seats and arbours should be made and the middle of the garden should have a well, a tank or a pond, various other treatises also mention establishing lotus shaped baths, lakes, lotus-shaped seats, swings, roundabouts, Menageries. There are accounts of four kinds of gardens in Ancient India: udyan, paramadodvana, vrikshavatika, and nandanavana. Vatika was a small garden inside homes.
Margeshu vriksha was the practice of planting trees on the roadside for shade. Manasollasa, a twelfth century text giving details on garden design , asserts that it should include rocks and raised mounds of summits, manicured with plants and trees of diverse varieties, artificial ponds, and flowing brooks. In medieval India , courtyard gardens are also essential elements of Mughal and Rajput palaces. Indian text silparatna 16th century AD states that Pushpavatika flower garden or public park should be located in the northern portion of the town. According to Kalidasa , a garden was elaborately laid out with tanks, arbors of creepers, seats Kridasaila , mock hills, swings in bowers or in open, raised seats, or vedika under large shady tree.
Arthashastra , sukraniti, and Kamandakanti mention public gardens which were situated outside the town and provided by the government where people would go and spend whole day in picnic, Panini mentions a kind of garden sport peculiar to eastern India pracam kridayam , Salabhanjika was the activity of plucking sala flowers and spending the time in merry making. Indian gardens were also built around large water reservoirs or water tanks, which were also built along the river. The water gardens of Sigiriya can be seen in the central section of the western precinct.
Three principal gardens are found here. The first garden consists of a plot surrounded by water. It is connected to the main precinct using four causeways, with gateways placed at the head of each causeway. This garden is built according to an ancient garden form known as char bagh , and is one of the oldest surviving models of this form. The second contains two long, deep pools set on either side of the path. Two shallow, serpentine streams lead to these pools.
Fountains made of circular limestone plates are placed here. Underground water conduits supply water to these fountains which are still functional, especially during the rainy season. Two large islands are located on either side of the second water garden. Summer palaces are built on the flattened surfaces of these islands. Two more islands are located farther to the north and the south.
These islands are built in a manner similar to the island in the first water garden. The third garden is situated on a higher level than the other two. It contains a large, octagonal pool with a raised podium on its northeast corner. The large brick and stone wall of the citadel is on the eastern edge of this garden. The water gardens are built symmetrically on an east—west axis. They are connected with the outer moat on the west and the large artificial lake to the south of the Sigiriya rock. All the pools are also interlinked using an underground conduit network fed by the lake, and connected to the moats. A miniature water garden is located to the west of the first water garden, consisting of several small pools and watercourses. This recently discovered smaller garden appears to have been built after the Kashyapan period, possibly between the 10th and 13th centuries.
All Persian gardens, from the ancient to the high classical were developed in opposition to the harsh and arid landscape of the Iranian Plateau. Unlike historical European gardens, which seemed carved or re-ordered from within their existing landscape , Persian gardens appeared as impossibilities. Their ethereal and delicate qualities emphasized their intrinsic contrast to the hostile environment. Trees and trellises largely feature as biotic shade; pavilions and walls are also structurally prominent in blocking the sun.
The heat also makes water important, both in the design and maintenance of the garden. Irrigation may be required, and may be provided via a form of tunnel called a qanat , that transports water from a local aquifer. Well-like structures then connect to the qanat, enabling the drawing of water. Alternatively, an animal-driven Persian well would draw water to the surface. Trees were often planted in a ditch called a juy , which prevented water evaporation and allowed the water quick access to the tree roots. The Persian style often attempts to integrate indoors with outdoors through the connection of a surrounding garden with an inner courtyard. Designers often place architectural elements such as vaulted arches between the outer and interior areas to open up the divide between them.
Gardens were much cherished in the Egyptian times and were kept both for secular purposes and attached to temple compounds. Gardens in private homes and villas before the New Kingdom were mostly used for growing vegetables and located close to a canal or the river. However, in the New Kingdom they were often surrounded by walls and their purpose incorporated pleasure and beauty besides utility. Garden produce made out an important part of foodstuff but flowers were also cultivated for use in garlands to wear at festive occasions and for medicinal purposes.
While the poor kept a patch for growing vegetables, the rich people could afford gardens lined with sheltering trees and decorative pools with fish and waterfowl. There could be wooden structures forming pergolas to support vines of grapes from which raisins and wine were produced. There could even be elaborate stone kiosks for ornamental reasons, with decorative statues. Temple gardens had plots for cultivating special vegetables, plants or herbs considered sacred to a certain deity and which were required in rituals and offerings like lettuce to Min. Sacred groves and ornamental trees were planted in front of or near both cult temples and mortuary temples. As temples were representations of heaven and built as the actual home of the god, gardens were laid out according to the same principle.
Avenues leading up to the entrance could be lined with trees, courtyards could hold small gardens and between temple buildings gardens with trees, vineyards, flowers and ponds were maintained. The ancient Egyptian garden would have looked different from a modern garden. It would have seemed more like a collection of herbs or a patch of wild flowers, lacking the specially bred flowers of today. Flowers like the iris, chrysanthemum, lily, and delphinium blue , were certainly known to the ancients, but were not featured much in garden scenes. Due to the arid climate of Egypt, tending gardens meant constant attention and depended on irrigation. Skilled gardeners were employed by temples and households of the wealthy.
Duties included planting, weeding, watering by means of a shadoof , pruning of fruit trees, digging the ground, and harvesting the fruit. It is curious that although the Egyptians and Romans both gardened with vigor, the Greeks did not own private gardens. They did put gardens around temples, and they adorned walkways and roads with statues, but the ornate and pleasure gardens that demonstrated wealth in the other communities is seemingly absent.
Roman gardens were a place of peace and solitude, a refuge from urban life. Gaius Maecenas , a culturally influential confidante of the emperor Augustus , built the first private garden estate of Rome to fulfill his creative ambitions and restore his delicate health. Ornamental horticulture became highly developed during the development of Roman civilization. The administrators of the Roman Empire c. Seeds and plants were widely shared. Both Chinese and Japanese garden design traditionally is intended to evoke the natural landscape of mountains and rivers.
However, the intended viewpoint of the gardens differs: Chinese gardens were intended to be viewed from within the garden and are intended as a setting for everyday life. Japanese gardens, with a few exceptions, were intended to be viewed from within the house, somewhat like a diorama. Moreover, Chinese gardens often included a water feature, while Japanese gardens, set in a wetter climate, would often get by with the suggestion of water such as sand or pebbles raked into a wave pattern. Traditional Chinese gardens are also more likely to treat the plants in a naturalistic way, while traditional Japanese gardens might feature plants sheared into mountain or cloud shapes.
This contrasts with the handling of stone elements: in a Japanese garden, stepping stones are placed in groupings as part of the landscape, but in a Chinese garden, a particularly choice stone might even be placed on a pedestal in a prominent location so that it might be more easily appreciated. The style of Chinese garden varies among economic groups and differs by dynasties. Rocks, water, bridges, and pavilions are among the most common features of scholar gardens for the wealthy classes, while courtyards, wells, and terra cotta fish tanks are common among the general population. Other features such as moon gates and leaky windows openwork screens that pierce surrounding walls are seen in both groups. The development of landscape design in China was historically driven by philosophies of both Confucianism and Taoism.
Geometric symmetry and reinforcement of class boundaries were typical characteristics of landscape design in Asian cities, and both characteristics reflect Confucian ideals.