Mardi Gras Indian Music Analysis

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Mardi Gras Indian Music Analysis

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The Mardi Gras Indians, the Monogram Hunters

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Jazz-funk recordings typically used electric bass and electric piano in the rhythm section, in place of the double bass and acoustic piano that were typically used in jazz up till that point. Pianist and bandleader Herbie Hancock was the first of many big jazz artists who embraced funk during the decade. Hancock's Headhunters band played the jazz-funk style. The Headhunters' lineup and instrumentation, retaining only wind player Bennie Maupin from Hancock's previous sextet, reflected his new musical direction.

He used percussionist Bill Summers in addition to a drummer. On the Corner was jazz trumpeter-composer Miles Davis [86] 's seminal foray into jazz-funk. Like his previous works though, On the Corner was experimental. Davis stated that On the Corner was an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. While there is a discernible funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tanpura and tablas , and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape.

Both sides of the record featured heavy funk drum and bass grooves, with the melodic parts snipped from hours of jams and mixed in the studio. Also cited as musical influences on the album by Davis were the contemporary composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. In the s, largely as a reaction against what was seen as the over-indulgence of disco , many of the core elements that formed the foundation of the P-Funk formula began to be usurped by electronic instruments , drum machines and synthesizers.

Horn sections of saxophones and trumpets were replaced by synth keyboards , and the horns that remained were given simplified lines, and few horn solos were given to soloists. Electronic drum machines such as the Roland TR , Linn LM-1 , and Oberheim DMX began to replace the " funky drummers " of the past, and the slap and pop style of bass playing were often replaced by synth keyboard basslines. Lyrics of funk songs began to change from suggestive double entendres to more graphic and sexually explicit content. Influenced by Kraftwerk , the Afroamerican rap DJ Afrika Bambaataa developed electro-funk, a minimalist machine-driven style of funk with his single " Planet Rock " in The single " Renegades of Funk " followed in Rick James was the first funk musician of the s to assume the funk mantle dominated by P-Funk in the s.

His album Street Songs , with the singles "Give It to Me Baby" and " Super Freak ", resulted in James becoming a star, and paved the way for the future direction of explicitness in funk. Beginning in the late s, Prince used a stripped-down, dynamic instrumentation similar to James. However, Prince went on to have as much of an impact on the sound of funk as any one artist since Brown; he combined eroticism, technology, an increasing musical complexity, and an outrageous image and stage show to ultimately create music as ambitious and imaginative as P-Funk [ citation needed ].

Eventually, the band went on to define their own style of stripped-down funk based on tight musicianship and sexual themes. Similar to Prince, other bands emerged during the P-Funk era and began to incorporate uninhibited sexuality, dance-oriented themes, synthesizers and other electronic technologies to continue to craft funk hits. By the latter half of the s, pure funk had lost its commercial impact; however, pop artists from Michael Jackson to Culture Club often used funk beats.

Artists like Steve Arrington and Cameo still received major airplay and had huge global followings. Rock bands began adopting elements of funk into their sound, creating new combinations of " funk rock " and " funk metal ". These bands later inspired the underground mids funkcore movement and current funk-inspired artists like Outkast , Malina Moye , Van Hunt , and Gnarls Barkley. However, they never came close to reaching the commercial success of funk in its heyday—with the exception of Jamiroquai, whose album Travelling Without Moving sold about Meanwhile, in Australia and New Zealand, bands playing the pub circuit, such as Supergroove , Skunkhour and the Truth , preserved a more instrumental form of funk.

Since the late s hip hop artists have regularly sampled old funk tunes. James Brown is said to be the most sampled artist in the history of hip hop, while P-Funk is the second most sampled artist; samples of old Parliament and Funkadelic songs formed the basis of West Coast G-funk. Original beats that feature funk-styled bass or rhythm guitar riffs are also not uncommon. Dre considered the progenitor of the G-funk genre has freely acknowledged to being heavily influenced by George Clinton's psychedelia: "Back in the 70s that's all people were doing: getting high, wearing Afros , bell-bottoms and listening to Parliament-Funkadelic.

That's why I called my album The Chronic and based my music and the concepts like I did: because his shit was a big influence on my music. Very big". George Clinton branded Digital Underground as " Sons of the P ", as their second full-length release is also titled. A very strong funk album of DU's was their release Future Rhythm. Much of contemporary club dance music, drum and bass in particular has heavily sampled funk drum breaks. Funk is a major element of certain artists identified with the jam band scene of the late s and s. In the late s, the band Phish developed a live sound called "cow funk" aka "space funk" , which consisted of extended danceable deep bass grooves, and often emphasized heavy "wah" pedal and other psychedelic effects from the guitar player and layered Clavinet from the keyboard player.

Lettuce , a band of Berklee College Of Music graduates, was formed in the late s as a pure-funk emergence was being felt through the jam band scene. Dumpstaphunk builds upon the New Orleans tradition of funk, with their gritty, low-ended grooves and soulful four-part vocals. Since the mids the nu-funk or funk revivalist scene, centered on the deep funk collectors scene, is producing new material influenced by the sounds of rare funk 45s. These labels often release on 45 rpm records. Although specializing in music for rare funk DJs, there has been some crossover into the mainstream music industry, such as Sharon Jones' appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien.

Those who mix acid jazz , acid house , trip hop , and other genres with funk include Tom Tom Club , [96] Brainticket , [97] Groove Armada , et al. During the s and early s, some punk funk bands such as Out Hud and Mongolian MonkFish performed in the indie rock scene. Indie band Rilo Kiley , in keeping with their tendency to explore a variety of rockish styles, incorporated funk into their song " The Moneymaker " on the album Under the Blacklight. Particle , [] for instance, is part of a scene which combined the elements of digital music made with computers, synthesizers, and samples with analog instruments, sounds, and improvisational and compositional elements of funk.

From the early s onwards, funk has developed various subgenres. While George Clinton and the Parliament were making a harder variation of funk, bands such as Kool and the Gang , Ohio Players and Earth, Wind and Fire were making disco-influenced funk music. Many instruments may be incorporated into funk rock, but the overall sound is defined by a definitive bass or drum beat and electric guitars. The bass and drum rhythms are influenced by funk music but with more intensity, while the guitar can be funk-or-rock-influenced, usually with distortion. The term "avant-funk" has been used to describe acts who combined funk with art rock 's concerns. Go-go originated in the Washington, D. Inspired by singers such as Chuck Brown , the "Godfather of Go-go", it is a blend of funk, rhythm and blues , and early hip hop , with a focus on lo-fi percussion instruments and in-person jamming in place of dance tracks.

As such, it is primarily a dance music with an emphasis on live audience call and response. Go-go rhythms are also incorporated into street percussion. Boogie or electro-funk is an electronic music mainly influenced by funk and post-disco. The minimalist approach of boogie, consisting of synthesizers and keyboards, helped to establish electro and house music. Boogie, unlike electro, emphasizes the slapping techniques of bass guitar but also bass synthesizers. Electro funk is a hybrid of electronic music and funk. It essentially follows the same form as funk, and retains funk's characteristics, but is made entirely or partially with a use of electronic instruments such as the TR Vocoders or talkboxes were commonly implemented to transform the vocals. The pioneering electro band Zapp commonly used such instruments in their music.

Bootsy Collins also began to incorporate a more electronic sound on later solo albums. Funk metal sometimes typeset differently such as funk-metal is a fusion genre of music which emerged in the s, as part of the alternative metal movement. It typically incorporates elements of funk and heavy metal often thrash metal , and in some cases other styles, such as punk and experimental music. It features hard-driving heavy metal guitar riffs, the pounding bass rhythms characteristic of funk, and sometimes hip hop -style rhymes into an alternative rock approach to songwriting. A primary example is the all-African-American rock band Living Colour , who have been said to be "funk-metal pioneers" by Rolling Stone.

G-funk is a fusion genre of music which combines gangsta rap and funk. It is generally considered to have been invented by West Coast rappers and made famous by Dr. It incorporates multi-layered and melodic synthesizers, slow hypnotic grooves, a deep bass, background female vocals, the extensive sampling of P-Funk tunes, and a high-pitched portamento saw wave synthesizer lead. Unlike other earlier rap acts that also utilized funk samples such as EPMD and the Bomb Squad , G-funk often used fewer, unaltered samples per song. Timba is a form of funky Cuban popular dance music. By , several Cuban bands had incorporated elements of funk and hip-hop into their arrangements, and expanded upon the instrumentation of the traditional conjunto with an American drum set, saxophones and a two-keyboard format.

While many funk motifs exhibit a clave -based structure, they are created intuitively, without a conscious intent of aligning the various parts to a guide-pattern. Timba incorporates funk motifs into an overt and intentional clave structure. Funk jam is a fusion genre of music which emerged in the s. It typically incorporates elements of funk and often exploratory guitar, along with extended cross genre improvisations; often including elements of jazz , ambient , electronic , Americana , and hip hop including improvised lyrics. Despite funk's popularity in modern music, few people have examined the work of funk women. She states that "Betty Davis is an artist whose name has gone unheralded as a pioneer in the annals of funk and rock.

Most writing on these musical genres has traditionally placed male artists like Jimi Hendrix, George Clinton of Parliament-Funkadelic , and bassist Larry Graham as trendsetters in the shaping of a rock music sensibility. Greene [] notes that Davis' provocative and controversial style helped her rise to popularity in the s as she focused on sexually motivated, self-empowered subject matter. Furthermore, this affected the young artist's ability to draw large audiences and commercial success. Greene also notes that Davis was never made an official spokesperson or champion for the civil rights and feminist movements of the time, although more recently [ when?

Laina Dawes, the author of What Are You Doing Here: A Black Woman's Life and Liberation in Heavy Metal , believes respectability politics is the reason artists like Davis do not get the same recognition as their male counterparts: "I blame what I call respectability politics as part of the reason the funk-rock some of the women from the '70s aren't better known. Despite the importance of their music and presence, many of the funk-rock females represented the aggressive behavior and sexuality that many people were not comfortable with. According to Francesca T. Royster criticizes Vincent's analysis of the group, stating: "It is a shame, then, that Vincent gives such minimal attention to Labelle's performances in his study.

This reflects, unfortunately, a still consistent sexism that shapes the evaluation of funk music. In Funk , Vincent's analysis of Labelle is brief—sharing a single paragraph with the Pointer Sisters in his three-page sub chapter, 'Funky Women. In recent years, [ when? Valnes acknowledges that funk is male-dominated, but provides insight to the societal circumstances that led to this situation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Nu-funk. Music genre that originated in African-American communities in the mids. For other uses, see Funk disambiguation. Soul music with a greater emphasis on the beats and rhythms of an arrangement, influences from rhythm and blues and jazz. Deep funk go-go P-Funk. Acid jazz afrobeat avant-funk free funk funk metal funk-pop funk rock funky house G-funk glitch hop jazz-funk psychedelic funk skweee UK funky Brit funk. Musicians psychedelic soul. Main article: P-Funk. See also: Progressive soul and disco. Main article: Jazz-funk.

See also: Electro music. Main article: Funk rock. Main article: avant-funk. Main article: Go-go. Main article: Boogie genre. Main article: Electro funk. Main article: Funk metal. Main article: G-funk. Main article: Timba. Encyclopedia Britannica, 26 Aug. Accessed 29 April Sound on Sound. Retrieved April 18, In a dark twist on the values which America was built upon, this empire is in fact the United States.

The tale begins as a strategically timed heart attack kills off Thomas Jefferson at the worst moment of the historical New England separatist movement in The bumbling James Madison , his successor, gets into a war with Great Britain and the New England rebels in and loses handily. Half the Midwest is lost, and furthermore, in the course of the war Madison alienated New York and New Jersey and caused them to secede and join New England as well. Since the former Northeastern states that make up the new Republic of New England were the heartland of the abolitionist movement in our world's US, their secession from the Union swings the political balance in favor of the Southern states, whose economies were built upon slave labor and which were fiercely defensive of their "peculiar institution".

From here on, the timeline somehow manages to become broader in scope until it is global, while at the same time getting more and more detailed. Needless to say, much has changed in the intervening time. Decades of Darkness is one of the most influential AH. It is often cited alongside earlier works from soc. It was concluded on January 20, A series of vignettes and a novel exploring the future of this world remain in the works. You can read the completed story here at the AH. Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this.

Get Known if you don't have an account. General Tropes. Cool Ship : The battleships, with inch cannons — bigger than almost anything in our world, except the Yamato. Leaders proudly proclaim that anybody can integrate with the culture of their adopted nation provided they learn the language and embrace its values Edmund Schulthess, Chancellor of Germany during the Great War, thought the same, and it heavily informed his decision to break up France into multiple small countries upon winning the war — he saw French culture as a fundamental enemy of German culture, and needing to be dissolved if Germany was to remain safe.

Darkest Hour : The appropriately-named chapter Midnight. Doorstopper : The finished timeline is longer than pages. One troper, with the tenacity of a true sociopath, managed to lovingly craft, edit, and format the entire timeline into a print-worthy book. Single-spaced and with a 12 font, it comes to over 2, pages. After the North American War, the enslavement of Canadian rebels in occupied British Columbia causes outrage due to the spectacle of white people being enslaved, with many fearing that they may be next — an admittedly self-serving case, but one all the same.

A more clear-cut example comes when outrage over the use of Latina peon "dance instructors" as sex slaves leads to the formation of a peon rights group, the Society for the Ethical Peon Treatment SEPT. Gratuitous German : Radio is named "funk"; and since Germany has become one of the superpowers, German or rather, neudeutsch phrases tend to crop up. It's New York that becomes famous for its Mardi Gras celebrations.

As for New Orleans itself? In other words, New Orleans became New York, and vice versa. Inverted in one important case. Due to the logistical challenges of ruling over so many people, they try to co-opt the white criollo upper classes of the conquered territories as Les Collaborateurs , granting them citizenship and using them to help consolidate their control. Occasionally, some rich mestizos manage to buy their way into citizenship as well, though this grows tougher as time goes on. Indios and mestizos who couldn't use money to whiten wind up in the ranks of the peons. Loophole Abuse : Everything that the Vitalists did while in charge of New England was technically constitutional. After they're overthrown, the new leaders write a new constitution to close all those loopholes, remarking that, even though the Vitalists technically followed the letter of the law, they had utterly betrayed its spirit.

Lovecraft Country : While the Republic of New England itself isn't portrayed as such, its literary scene produces an analogue of H. Lovecraft and the Cthulhu Mythos in the form of L. Phillips, who is far more successful in life than his inspiration was. Given New England's then-recent and humiliating loss in the North American War , comparisons can be drawn to German expressionism and Weimar art. Mirroring Factions : The Liberians engage in numerous human rights abuses against the natives in their lands, most notably a genocide of the Herero and Namaqua tribes that, in real life, was carried out by the German colonial authorities in that area.

They will not treat as equal any man they see as being of a different blood. If we obsess about race, if we refuse to fight men because they are of the same blood, then we are making the same mistake in a different way. They are great for introducing visitors to a particular city, region, or country that has previously been neglected. If successful, emerging destinations bring development, economic growth, and employment to the area. Answer: Environmental advantages of tourism might include the funding of environmental projects or maintenance of wildlife protection and habitats.

Travel infrastructure can be developed that benefits both tourists and the environment. As tourism expands, less environmentally friendly industries can be phased out, and local eco-friendly crafts can be promoted. Workers who might otherwise be tempted to earn their money from things like logging, poaching, and other potentially environmentally damaging roles can be employed in tourism. Tourism also provides an incentive for beaches and areas of natural beauty to be maintained.

Answer: Swaziland offers many experiences that make it an attractive destination, including: wildlife, a lively and colorful local culture, rafting and mountain biking, stunning scenery, and a variety of accommodation options for travelers. Answer: In a narrow financial sense, a well-organized tourism industry is almost always effective at bringing in money. Success can bring an over-reliance on tourism, however, which can be problematic in the event of such things as a natural disaster, or a terrorist attack, which tends to deter tourists.

Tourism can also distort a local economy, creating lots of low paid service industry jobs, sometimes at the expense of potentially more skilled and lucrative industries, such as high-tech or manufacturing. Another negative is when overconfident or naive tourists go into dangerous areas and then get hurt or killed. Well-meaning people try to downplay the dangers of some locations, when the reality is that it is not safe.

Similarly, when people are on a trip, they tend to let their guard down, becoming an easier target. You cannot copy the entire page. That would be a breach of copyright law. You can copy one or two short excerpts, say a couple of individual paragraphs, and use it somewhere else, but any more than that is a no-no. Thanks, this article was very helpful it really helped me get a good grade too!

Thanks SoapBoxie. List any five countries that Nigerians frequent for any particular kind of tourism and state reason for it. It is very good and detailed in a way that I actually enjoy reading so keep up the hard and the good work. Hi guys im from iran,kurdstan province,mariwan city. Goodman is not merely a name This information is very essential for studies and reference. Thank you so much!

Please write about the advantages and disadvantages of tourism on small islands. Especially, to the environment and the development. A well researched article. As someone who has travelled extensively in the USA and somewhat in Europe my family and I have enjoyed our world in a wider context. A 6 month road trip in the USA in was a great experience. At the same time we now choose to travel more extensively in our own country and in so doing make a contribution to the South African economy. Sensitivity to the culture of a country is vitally important and we have always been aware of that. We have noticed that not everyone has however. Thanks for a good article!

The article is very interesting and helpful , but still need someone to give me more information on tourism history. Racism is also one of the problems. Pls include that their as well. It is a major problem in the developing countries. Pls look into it. I totally agree with the disadvatages of the tourism industry. It is very rare in Sri Lanka that we get disrespectful foreigners but its a very annoying presence! It has to stop. I don't think that its fair of the locals. I loved the definitions and it certainly helped me with my assignment. This website was very helpful and provided a vast amount of imformation.

Thank u. Tourism is important because it acts like an export. Cut off tourism and you cut off the exporting effect on the economy. Great article but I am amused that Las Vegas is not at the top of total tourists list. Tourism have the both effects, bad and good but as long as it have the good effect, all i think is the good of it. They also have little prospect for promotion". Well I think that everyone has a role to play, and that every job fulfills a need.

However, it is indeed a major source of income to a country Very informative and intelligent analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the tourism on our economy. The citizens will face price fluctuation which is one of the disadvantages.

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